Sexually Transmitted Diseases (final) - Sexually Transmitted Diseases Definition o Any infection that can be spread through sexual intercourse anal sex

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (final) - Sexually...

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases Definition o Any infection that can be spread through sexual intercourse, anal sex, oral sex, and using fingers, other body parts, or sex toys that have come into contact with another person’s genitals or body fluids generally- genitals, anus, or throat called STD or STI Epidemiology o 19 million STDs each year in the US o 50% of these in 15-24 o medical costs of STDs is $16 billion annually o most reported STD is Chlamydia o most common STD in adolescents in HPV o most of the clinical syndromes uncomplicated urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) itching PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) (can cause infertility and chronic pelvic pain) complications of pregnancy warts tertiary syphillis cervical cancer HIV infection and AIDS Adolescent Sexuality o one of the top 10 leading public health issues facing the nation o 47% of US high school students have had sexual intercourse o 34% report current sexual activity o prevalence of sexual activity rises from 24-62% in females from age 15-18 o 61% of HS students used condom with last sexual intercourse o 14% of HS students report having more than 4 partners Factors Causing Increase Risk in Adolescents o alcohol and drug use o immature cognitive functioning o Socioeconomic factors- poverty and lack of access to healthcare o sense of invulnerability o lack of communication and partner-negotiation skills
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Healthcare Provider Issues o less than 1% of patients visits include counseling on HIV Barriers to Discussion of Sexuality o narrow conception of health care and the role of the physician in health education and prevention o stigma associated with STDs, HIV, and discussion of sexual behavior o practical constraints of time and resources Principles for discussing sexuality o confidentiality o normalization- clinicians must treat this part of the history just like all others o respect for diversity o avoidance of assumptions o specific questioning o listen to responses and use appropriate body language o avoid medical jargon o recognize the link- help patients see links between different risk- taking behaviors o think prevention o know your resources- community and in office 5 “P’s” of taking a sexual history o partners o prevention of pregnancy o protection from STDs o practices o past history of STDs Risk Factors for STDs o 15-24 o African-American o Unmarried o Geographical residence o new sex partners in past 60 days o multiple sexual partners o history of prior STD o illicit drug use o admission to a correctional facility or JV detention o meeting partners on the internet
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o contact with sex workers Common STDs o chlamydia o gonorrhea o HIV o syphilis o herpes simplex (HSV) o HPV o Hepatitis o Trichomoniasis o Pediculosis Pubis Chlamydia Pathogenesis and Transmission o caused by chlamydia trachomatis o infection occurs when it invades the mucous membranes (mouth, anus, throat, vaginas, or urethra) o ejaculation is not necessary o
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  • Fall '11
  • Harris,GeorgeD
  • Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Oral sex, Human papillomavirus

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