Psych Study Guide

Psych Study Guide - Psych Study Guide 1 Concepts of...

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Psych Study Guide 1.) Concepts of Personality a. Personality -an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting b. Free association - a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing c. Unconscious -according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. d. Psychoanalysis- Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts 2.) Compare ego to id a. Ego - the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle , satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain b. Id - contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle , demanding immediate gratification 3.) Oedipus Complex a. Oedipus Complex - according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desire toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father 4.) Criticisms of Freud’s theory a. The differences in theory were they placed more emphasis on the conscious mind’s role in interpreting experience and in coping with the environment b. They also doubted that sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations. They instead tended to emphasize loftier motives and social interactions 5.) Maslow’s emphasis a. Proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs b. If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with personal safety; if we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love, to be loved, and to love ourselves; with love satisfied, we seek self esteem and with self esteem we seek self actualization. (pyramid in notes) 6.) Roger’s emphasis a. People nurture our growth by being genuine -by being open with their own feelings, dropping their facades, and being transparent and self-disclosing b. People also nurture our growth by being accepting -by offering unconditional positive regard c. Unconditional positive regard -an attitude of total acceptance toward another person 7.) Criticism of humanistic perspective a. Its concepts are vague and subjective b. The individualism encouraged by humanistic psychology can lead to self indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints
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c. It fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity of evil 8.) Describing trait theorists a. Gordon Allport - described personality in terms of fundamental traits b. Trait researchers attempt to define personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patterns, such as Sam Gamgee’s loyalty and optimism 9.) Big five traits and creativity (CANOE) a. Conscientiousness- organized or disorganized, careful or careless, disciplined or impulsive
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Psych Study Guide - Psych Study Guide 1 Concepts of...

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