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Amyotrophic later sclerosis and SOD1.IntroductionAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease,whichis portrayed by progressive degeneration and elimination of motor neuronse.(Gugliandolo et al., 2019).ALS is portrayed by progressive degeneration and theelimination of motor neurons.ALS is established in two ways, and these areTwo typesof ALS have been identified,includingfamilial and sporadicALS.(Gugliandolo et al.,2019).The second most commonand researched sourceof familial ALS ismutation intheSOD1 gene.(Alemasov et al., 2018).In 1869,ALS was discovered by a Frenchdoctor named Jean-Martin Charcot(Longinetti & Fang, 2019). .(Gugliandolo et al.,2019).In 1993Subsequently, a group of scientists supported by the nationalinstitute of neurological disorders discovered that SOD1 gene mutation isassociated with categories of familial ALSin 1993.(Gugliandolo et al., 2019).A mutation in SOD1 proteinresults inadvancing muscle atrophyandconsequently causes adult-onset fatalparalytic neurodegenerationdisease withculminating paralysis and death.(Gugliandolo et al., 2019).In Australia,itsapproximated thatthere are8.7 per 100,000 or 1 in 11,434 Australiansarediagnosedwith ALSeveryyear(year. (Longinetti & Fang, 2019)reference).As a disease related toneurodegeneration, it hashighThis disease has highmortalityrate.(Longinetti & Fang,2019).In general,ratewith people with SOD1 typehaving a mortality ofthree to fiveyearsat the momentlife expectancy is shown inpatients diagnosed with ALS.(Longinetti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SOD1).& Fang, 2019).Although living with this diseasefor a long termis very rare,theinfamous steven Hawkins lived with ALS for 55 years. Nevertheless,thereason forsteven Hawkins long livereason of such long-life expectancyis notwellunderstood,(Dobson R, 2002).butwhileit issomeassumethat it is related withd to be acombination ofgenes andenvironment as well as clinicalto be the reasontreatments.(Dobson R, 2002).Currently,there is no cure to treat ALSno effective treatment hasbeen developed for ALS, dueto complex causes of this disease and unknownmechanismsbehind it.(Gugliandolo et al., 2019).Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisALS could beresultedsfrom various proteinmutations and is also linked to environmental factors.(Gugliandolo et al., 2019).Aalthough some of the mutated genesare knownhave been identified in ALSpatients, notall the contributing factorsto this disease are nothaveyet fullyknowndiscovered.(Gugliandolo et al., 2019).Approximately 10% of ALS is geneticrelated,and families have family history of the diseasewhile remaining 90% of casesoccur sporadically.(Alemasov et al., 2018).So far, the second most common causeof familial ALS is mutated SOD1 gene (Alemasov et al., 2018).This essay aims toexamine SOD1 gene and protein mutation relating to ALS disease.

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