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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7-Capturing Solar Energy Photosynthesis...

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Chapter 7—Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis I. What is Photosynthesis? a. Introduction i. In this process, the cells captured a small fraction of the sunlight’s energy, storing it as chemical energy in complex organic molecules. ii. Endless variation produced by random genetic mistakes gave rise to cells that could survive in oxygen and later to cells that use O2 to break down glucose 1. Lead to cellular respiration iii. Photosynthesis converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in glucose bonds and released oxygen 1. Occurs in eukaryotic plants, algae, and certain types of prokaryotes all of which are autotrophs 2. In plants, photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts b. Leaves and chloroplasts are adaptations for photosynthesis i. Pg 117 for pictures ii. The flattened shape of leaves exposes a large surface area to the sun, and their thinness ensures that sunlight can penetrate them to reach the chloroplasts iii. Stomata—adjustable pores in the epidermis 1. Open and close at appropriate times to admit air carrying CO2 iv. Photosynthesis consists of light dependent and light-independent reactions 1. These reactions are linked by energy-carrier molecules a. In light-dependent reactions, chlorophyll and other molecules embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids capture sunlight energy and convert some of it into the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH i. Oxygen is released as a by-product
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