Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Life on Earth Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introduction to Life on Earth Chapter 1 2 What are the Characteristics of Living Things? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They respond to stimuli 6. They reproduce Chapter 1 3 Characteristics Their structure is complex & of Living Things organized They acquire materials & energy from their environment They maintain their internal conditions They grow Chapter 1 4 1-1 Salt: Organized but simple Chapter 1 5 Oceans:Extremely complex but unorganized Chapter 1 0 6 Water flea: Organized & Complex Chapter 1 Levels of Biological Organization I 0 7 1-2 Cellular Organelle Molecular Atomic Subatomic Mitochondrion H H Water Hydrogen O Nerve Cell Chloroplast CH2OH Nucleus Glucose Carbon Nitrogen DNA Oxygen Proton Neutron Electron Chapter 1 Levels of Biological Organization II 0 8 1-2 Organism Organ System Organ Tissues Nervous Tissue Pronghorn Antelope Nervous System Brain Chapter 1 Levels of Biological Organization III 0 9 1-2 Biospher e Ecosyste Bushes Hawk Snake Water Grass m Hawk Communit Snake y Populatio Herd of Pronghorns n Earth's surface Air Pronghorns Soil Pronghorns Characteristics: Respond to Stimuli Temperature H2O Levels Blood Sugar Levels Chapter 1 0 10 p4 Changes in internal environment Changes in external environment Seek food & water Avoid bitterness (changes in ph) Plants grow towards light (Phototropism) Characteristics: Homeostasis Chapter 1 0 11 p4 Organized systems disintegrate Preventing disintegration requires energy Homeostasis means "staying the same" Sweat when hot; shiver when cold Thirsty when water level is low Characteristics: Chapter 1 Acquire Materials and Energy Homeostasis requires energy Opposes natural trend to disintegrate Obtained from external source Homeostasis requires physical repair Parts Break down New materials required for repair Food supplies material & energy 0 12 p5 Characteristics: Growth Extension of Homeostasis Chapter 1 0 13 p5 Organisms grow in size/mass Must acquire more then needed for homeostasis Genetically preprogrammed Timing Size Shape Homeostasis "staying the same" Growth = homeostasis + extra Chapter 1 Characteristics: Reproduction Reproduce themselves in kind (heredity) 0 14 p6 Perpetuation of parent's genetics Genetic info is stored in DNA molecule Variation Offspring similar to both parents Offspring different form either parent Simple code with complex error correction system Chapter 1 Characteristics: Evolution Genetic Composition of population changes (evolves) 0 15 1-7 Differential survival rates (natural survival) "Selects" advantageous adaptations DNA The more time the more change Eventually became much Chapter 1 0 16 How Do Scientists Categorize the Diversity of Life? Chapter Categorizing the Diversity 1 of Life 0 17 3 Domains of Living Organisms Bacteria Prokaryote Eukaryote Categorizing the Eukarya Kingdom Protista Unicellular Kingdom Fungi Multicellular Kingdom Plantae Multicellular Kingdom Anamilia Multicellular Chapter 1 0 18 1-8 Some Characteristics Used in Classification of Chapter 1 Organisms 19 Autotrophs: use photosynthesis Heterotrophs: eat other organisms Chapter 1 20 What is the Science of Biology? Chapter 1 21 Principles 3 Underlying All Science natural All events can attribute to causes Explanations don't evoke deity Don't specifically exclude deity Natural laws appear @ all places @ all times People perceive events in simular Chapter 1 Misconceptions About Science 22 1. 2. 3. Scientists "Prove" things "It's just a theory" Science vs. Religion Chapter 1 23 The Scientific Method Observation Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion repeat Modify Doesn't Chapter 1 0 24 An example... Chapter 1 25 1-9 Penicillin Alexander Flemming, 1920 Culture dishes became contaminated Bacteria wouldn't grow near penicillin Extracted fluid from mold Fluid inhibited bacterial growth Later isolated as penecillin Chapter 1 26 p11 Scientific Theories A general statement about how things operate Derived through inductive reasoning Has survived through challenges Never permanent subject to change / replacement Used to propose hypothesis deductive reasoning Chapter 1 27 Evolution: The Unifying Theory of Biology Evolution: Unifying Theories of Biology Change through time Chapter 1 28 4 1. Accounts for diversity of life 2. Accounts for fundamental similarities Common ancestry Scientific theory derived from observation & experiments 3 natural Evolutionary PCrocess in processes evolution 1. Genetic variation / Competition among variants 1. Not all survive 2. Adaptive characteristics inherited Chapter 1 29 Chapter 1 The End ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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