psych notes 10-25 - Vision Theories of color vision...

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Vision i Theories of color vision i Trichromatic theory •The theory of color vision suggesting that there are three types of cones (which are maximally sensitive to red, green, or blue), and that varying levels of activity in these receptors can produce all of the colors you see Vision i Opponent-process theory •Also suggests that there are three types of cells, but that each type has a pair of receptors working in opposition •Each type of receptor pair is sensitive to a given pair of colors: red/green, yellow/blue, white/black •When one member of the pair is activated, the other member is inhibited. No simultaneous transmission. •No “reddish greens” Perception i Sensory information is fragmented •Occlusions in visual field •Retinal structures •Blind spot •Blurriness outside fovea i Perception fills in the gaps •Creating a meaningful whole from fragmentary parts •Facilitating rapid understanding with minimal effort •Uses expectations from context and previous experience Perception i Bottom-up processing •Analyzing the components of the sensory information •Feature analysis •Identifying the various components that the sensory information comprises •E.g., scanning the visual information for horizontal lines, vertical lines, evidence of motion, gradients, curves, and so on by specialized areas of the visual cortex •Specialized analysis of facial features •Video: Face-blindness Top-down processing •Making meaning of sensory information by fitting it to what you already know •Expectations, past experience, motivations •Imposing order •Works in tandem with bottom-up •Gestalt rules of organization •The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Top-down processing helps us understand sensory information more efficiently
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•Need to quickly make sense of a lot of information, not get overwhelmed i Sometimes can lead us astray •Perceiving what we expect, rather than what is accurate Freudian wish fulfillment •Dreams represent unconscious wishes that the dreamer wants to fulfill •Manifest content: the story line of the dream •Latent content: the unconscious wish it represents •Dreams contain universal symbols •Criticisms Dreams for survival •Dreams represent the reprocessing of important information from daily life •Possibly an artifact from a time when people had limited brainpower •Dreams are inherently meaningful •Criticisms Reverse learning theory •Dreams have no meaning at all •Mental housekeeping •Flushing away unnecessary information accumulated throughout the day •Un-learning of material that serves no purpose and could end up being confusing •Searching for meaning in the dream content is therefore pointless •Criticisms Activation-synthesis theory •Brain produces random electrical energy during sleep •Electrical energy randomly stimulates mental content •The brain excels at making meaning out of ambiguous or fragmentary stimuli •Present or recent fears, emotions, concerns, or experiences may guide the brain’s interpretation
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psych notes 10-25 - Vision Theories of color vision...

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