Psychological egoism is defined by stating that all acts are motivated by self interest and that is impossible to act for the interests of other people at ones own expense. Moral egoism is defined by stating that all acts ought to be motivated by self interest, and that altruism is possible but wrong. This brings the great debate of what ‘is and what ought to be.’ Hobbes talks about a lot of psychological egoism. “Of the voluntary acts of every man, the object is some good to himself.” This can be viewed as a rather pessimistic view of life, and is heavily criticized by other ethicists such as Bishop Butler. He argues that ‘although pleasure may be derived from accomplishment of our intentions, pleasure is not the intention of every act.’ Ayn Rand has a different view on egoism. She supports more of a moral form of egoism, which supports the altruism that Hobbes rejects. She does say that self sacrifice is always, wrong, therefore stating that altruism, although possible, is wrong. Randian
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