Western Civilization Test 1 Study Guide

Western Civilization Test 1 Study Guide - Western...

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Western Civilization 1 Test 1 Study Guide Essays 1. Discuss the Black Death and its impact on European society. Several bacterial epidemics Bubonic (bites rats flees) Pneumonic (human contact) Septicemic (Rare but deadliest blood stream) Rate and scope was astonishing (70% Florence dead, 400 deaths a day, ½ Paris, London priests so stand-ins) Heroism, cowardice, drunken orgies, odd beliefs, flagellants spoke out about world Economic strain with labor shortage (20% of Rome) Increase in prostitution and women viewed more negatively Art changed to emphasize pain and death Weird/different forms of medicine were present like using smell and cloaks Thesis The black plague had an effect that struck Europe politically, economically, and medically. 2. Explain the relationships between religious and secular authority during the late middle ages in Europe. When and how did tensions arise? Secular was governing body and Christian Church represented religion, two different courts for each Struggles between power of Kings/nobility and the Pope Both thought they should be ruler Magna Carta Separation of church and state (King John and Pope) [church didn’t want to be a political weapon] It was difficult to answer to two different bodies, excommunication and legal punishments were both possible Influences of money and power within families changed decisions secular courts Sometimes they did agree like with the Spanish inquisition Thesis From a secular and religious standpoint, Europe was divided by two powers that commonly governed their people differently causing strict tensions 3. What was Humanism and what impact did it have on education, science, art, and politics in the Italian states? Humanism - an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems. Vittorino da Feltre Believed in humanist school Enrolle d elite boys with a few that weren’t because of money Two girls were brought in and they were the Duke’s daughters Encouraged liberal studies except for the girls Taught Greek and Latin because thought knowing both was vital Physical education was introduced (mostly track oriented events) Emphasized freedom and virtue Thesis Humanism was a movement during the renaissance that changed schools systems, art and beliefs that emphasized common needs and rational thinking 4. Explain the two historical arguments in the Taking Sides reading on women and the Renaissance (Week 5). What evidence does each scholar offer to support her position? Based on your reading of Giovanni and Lusanna, was Lusanna di Benedetto’s life and experience more representative of King’s po sition or Kelly- Gadol’s? Why?
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