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Unformatted text preview: Lecture-04 Agriculture in Bangladesh: Present position, Problems, Prospects and Policy Prof. Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam Ph.D. (University of Tokyo, Japan) (MEXT Fellow) JSPS Postdoctoral Research Fellow (2012-2014) NFP Fellow for M.Sc. ESA Credits (Netherlands) ISEM Fellow for Ecological Modeling (USA) SAMS Fellow for Marine ECOPATH Modeling (UK) Professor Department of Geography and Environment Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Executive Editor-in-Chief Modeling Earth Systems and Environment Outline Bangladesh agriculture at a glance Importance of agriculture Some challenges of agriculture Climate change and agriculture Factors related to climate change impact Adapting to climate change Policy Supports Conclusion 2 Bangladesh Agriculture at a Glance ❑ Total farm holding: 1,47,16,000 Total area: 14.845 million hectares Cultivable land: 8 million hectares Current fallow land: 0.469m hectares Annual Food Production: 31.9m MT Annual Food demand: 31.9m MT 3 Strategies: Self-sufficiency in food: 2012 Ensuring food security: 2017(a+a+n) Middle Income Country: 2022 *(a+a+n=Availability, accessibility and nutrition) 4 ing ct ty ivi u rod 2008 31.9 million ton production & uc d e r o hn c Te 2012 34.2 million tons production l ica g lo p & ing : ts s u a ap inp re Inc eld g nal ure t l i o i y dit u ▪ ric logy g Ad ge -A n o an tatio & e chn t h c ap ed t Te abi k d r A two rves od h ▪ Ne st ha g fo ▪ Po angin ▪ Ch ▪ Self sufficiency in food *Breakeven point Strategy for achieving self-sufficiency in food5 Food indicates only staple food Characteristics of Bangladesh Agriculture Cropping intensity 179% Irrigated land 56% Surface water:21% groundwater:79% Land-man ratio: .06 ha Mainly subsistence farming Inadequate agro-processing Non-mechanized farming Fragmented land/plots Dependence largely on nature 6 Importance of agriculture 21% GDP 48% labor force Source of raw materials as backward and forward linkage for agro based industries Agriculture determines people’s lives and livelihood of this region People living in rural areas 77% Export value 12% 7 Some challenges Rapid shrinkage of agricultural land @1% p.a. Population growth @1.48% p.a. Climate change and variations Rapid urbanization growth @12% p.a. Agricultural research and education (manpower shortage, updating course curriculum) Technology generation (needs expertise, time and money) Technology dissemination (needs expertise, time, logistics support) Alternate livelihoods/rehabilitation program Inadequate value addition /food processing 8 Prospects of Agriculture: Modern technological know-how is available for dissemination Scope for expanding hybrid technology exists(10%) Prospects for adoption of advanced technology in agriculture are bright Potentials for proper utilization of hilly/coastal areas including agro-ecologically disadvantaged regions exist Export potentials exist for high-value crops Scope for crop diversification, intensification and value addition to agricultural produces Agriculture sector has capacity to absorb labor force and to generate income Scope for reducing yield gaps exists 9 Why Climate Change matters for agriculture? Heavily depends on natural rainfall, weather & temperature, water level, soil condition etc. Uncontrolled farming environment Rice based agriculture greatly depends availability of fresh surface and ground water Seasonal farming Lack of stress tolerant varieties Changed cropping pattern 10 Types of climate change problems Sea Level Rise (SLR) Floods Riverbank erosion Drought Salinity intrusion Loss of homestead and livelihoods Pest infestation Land scarcity 11 Factors related to climate change Indiscriminate use of natural resources Excessive and unplanned urbanization Unplanned industrial growth Imbalanced use of agricultural inputs and extreme farming Population pressure Effect of industrial pollution by developed countries 12 Combating Climate Change Impact Adaptation: ▪Stress (flood, drought, submergence, salinity, heat, cold..) tolerant varieties ▪Short duration crops ▪Innovative farming practices ▪Floating cultivation method ▪Crop diversification ▪Changing/shifting cropping pattern ▪Alternate wetting and drying irrigation methods 13 Continued… Mitigation Coastal green belt Embankment/Dam Tidal River Management Early warning and weather forecasting Cyclone shelters Crop insurance 14 Collective efforts needed Political commitment Educational Institutions Civil society NGOs Media Research organizations Department of Agricultural Extension/Extension service providers Global cooperation 15 Recurrent natural calamities Cyclones 1970, 1991, 2007(Sidr), 2009(Ayla) Floods 1988, 2000, 2004, 2007 Erratic rainfall (e.g. late rainfall Aug/’09) Severe drought Heat and cold waves Northwestern storm Pest infestation Draw down/Declining Water Table 16 Last two decades agricultural growth ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Inputs based growth (intensive use of HYV/Hybrid seeds, irrigation, fertilizer, pesticides, etc.) Less mechanized farming Insignificant methodological change of farming Crop diversification Combination of vertical & horizontal growth Presently less scope of horizontal growth 17 Policy support National Agriculture Policy[1999; 2009(draft)] New Agricultural Extension Policy National Food Policy National Seed Policy National IPM policy Fertilizer Management (Amendment) Act,2009 The Pesticide Act, 2009 Rural Credit Policy (Farmers friendly) Land Policy & National Land use policy 18 Conclusion: Agriculture is the determining factor for food security as well as pro-poor development of Bangladesh economy. The Problems of agriculture are multifaceted. So the ways of addressing the challenges should be comprehensive, global and participatory for sustainable agricultural development. 19 THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION Executive Edito-in-Chief ...
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