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02. First Mesopotamian Empires

02. First Mesopotamian Empires - -Polytheism-Cuneiform...

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First Mesopotamian Empires - First cities emerged in Mesopotamia by about 4000 B.C.E., in the plains between and around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers - Need to construct and maintain irrigation canals promoted centralization in Mesopotamian cities - Urban center exercising political and economic control over nearby countryside = City-State - Sumerians created the first cities; by 3000 BCE, they had 12 independent city- states o Uruk, Eridu, Ur o Agriculture made cities prosperous o Traders went as far as India - 3000 BCE, invention of the wheel - Hierarchy dominated society - Slaves became slaves by being captured in war, being born to slaves, or voluntarily selling themselves as slaves – lowest social status - Hierarchy became so strong that the most powerful man became a king - Patriarchy – domination by men in political, social, and economic systems - King acknowledged the gods as his rulers – Theocracy (gov. by gods) - Redistributive economy
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Unformatted text preview: -Polytheism-Cuneiform first form of writing-Metallurgy developed the first empires kings craved a reliable supply of metals, and had to get it by trade or conquest-Worlds first empire Akkadia o Sargon, king of the city of Akkad, invaded north and south of homeland o 2350 BCE o Empire defeated around 2200 BCE by Gutians, hill people-2 nd millennium BCE, Assyria and Babylonia emerge-Expansion of private commerce and profit-based commerce, led to the enforcement of contracts, which required law-Kings decisions were called a code-Hammurabis Code most famous set of early laws-People assembled in courts to decide legal cases-Most notable achievements: mathematics and astronomy-Oldest known maps Thesis: The early Mesopotamian empires expanded upon the ideals and social systems of the Neolithic Revolution, and laid the groundwork for the development of future empires....
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