HIS 277 Week 3 - HIS 277 1/31/08 Week 3 KEY TERMS...

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HIS 277 1/31/08 Week 3 KEY TERMS Dynasties, Advantages, Sunni Dynasties Cultural Flourishing, Shi’ism-Doctrine, Ibn Khaldum Shi’ism ~religious genealogy ~’Ali deemed by the community to be the natural successor; his spiritual ancestors (through blood) are probable leaders once he dies and believed to be holy Shi’ite Islam -Shi’a means “party” or “partisans of” -The expression was originally “Shi’at ‘Ali” or the “partisans of Ali” -We see a political movement become a religious movement Sunni Versus Shi’i Islam - Sunn i – based on the traditions of the Prophet (sunna) and majority ~first and oral tradition and later in books - Shi’ism —locates authority more in certain people than text or tradition is a minority w/ 10% of Islamic community and can be much more traditional than Sunnism ~emphasis on living people Numbers -100 million Shi’ites -In Iran they are the majority 99% of the population or 55 million -Lebanon - 1 million -Persian Gulf – 1 million -Central Asia – 2 million -Pakistan – 6 million -India – 23 million -Iraq – 15 million More Numbers -most Shi’a are “twelvers” -There are also “seveners” or “fivers” depending on the number or successors they believe in, the Imams or decendents of Ali, before he was believed to go in hiding Shi’ites believe that -The Prophet’s kin have a natural leadership role in the community -The Imams or descendents have inherited authority, inspirations and God’s favor -Cousin Ali Ibn Talib was cheated out of leadership -The first three Caliphs, the Ummayads are usurpers -The usurpers are very powerful -Can lead to a defensive, minority mentality Shi’l Theology -There must be an imam in the universe -The last wordly imam did not die but is in hiding or ‘occultation’ and will return… Occultation and Dissimulation -For 12ers the last Imam has been in occultation since the 9 th century -Waiting for his return gives Shi’ism a messianic flavor
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-Shi’ites too are permitted to conceal their true beliefs in order to survive in a hostile state. Shi’ites Ritualize
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HIS 277 Week 3 - HIS 277 1/31/08 Week 3 KEY TERMS...

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