NES277-Mid-Term Outline

NES277-Mid-Term Outline - Clarity Organization Introduction...

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Clarity, Organization Introduction, Thesis, Supporting Paragraphs and Conclusion 1. Compare and contrast political successions and philosophies of authority between early Islam and Ottoman Empire through Suleyman Early Islam: Rightly Guided Caliphs and those who reigned in the Umayyad Dynasty -Because Muhammad had no sons and because the Quaran contained no clear instructions on how a successor should be chosen, the question of the leadership of the community was open to different interpretations. -The dispute over the first succession sowed seeds of conflict that have affected Islam throughout history - Caliph – the religious and political leader of the Islamic community. -Abu Bakr, and his 3 successors: Umar, Uthman and Ali are known as the ‘rightly guided’ guided caliphs (13, 15, 31) Rightly Guided : -because of their personal relationship with Muhammad and their devotion to Muhammad’s teachings. -Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali -all of these men were chosen to rule, two of them were assassinated. ~when the caliph Uthman was murdered in 656, the succession issue reemerged. It was resolved after a civil war and Ali was chosen to succeed the murdered Uthman. Next to the prophet himself, Ali was the most revered of the founders of Islam. He was the prophets cousin, the husband of the prophets daughter, and one of the most dedicated of the early converts Islam. Believed to be who Muhammad wanted to be his successor. ~he was murdered in 661 The Problem of Succession (Leadership) -The first 2 Caliphs were basically Muhammad’s best friends -The 3 rd Caliph was Uthman (644-56) ~represented the late converting Quraysh merchants who previously fought Muhammad ~he was a wealthy merchant and not one of the first Muslims but had skills necessary to govern a rapidly growing empire (administrative & Literate) but also made the mistake of putting his relatives in power over the older Muslims that have been devoted for years -thought it was necessary to write down the Quran and have one definitive version of it -murdered by other Muslims; proof that the community was fragile Shi’ites believe that -The Prophet’s kin have a natural leadership role in the community -The Imams or descendents have inherited authority, inspirations and God’s favor -Cousin Ali Ibn Talib was cheated out of leadership -The first three Caliphs, the Ummayads are usurpers -The usurpers are very powerful -Can lead to a defensive, minority mentality Shi’l Theology
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-There must be an imam in the universe -The last wordly imam did not die but is in hiding or ‘occultation’ and will return… (15) Shi’ism -only Ali and his successors are the true leaders of Islam -Ali is considered to be the most revered, as he is the cousin of the Prophet and married his daughter Fatima -they believe Muhammad intended Ali to be his first successor -they hold that the caliphate should be managed by the most qualified --which would be Muhammad’s family because they believe his divinity was passed
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course HIS 277 taught by Professor Hudson during the Spring '08 term at Arizona.

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NES277-Mid-Term Outline - Clarity Organization Introduction...

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