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1.3 - Skull, Face, and Scalp.docx - 1.3 – Skull, Face, and...

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1.3 – Skull, Face, and Scalp1/10/17I.Craniuma.Neurocranium – bony covering of brain – consists of calvaria(skullcap) and cranial base (basicranium)b.Formed by frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, temporal, andparietal bonesc.Viscerocranium is the facial skeleton – formed by mandible,vomer, maxillae, inferior conchae, zygomatic, palatine, nasal, andlacrimal bonesII.Suturea.Type of fibrous joint between adjacent skull onesb.In neonate, fibrous membrane fills gaps between adjacent skull bones forming fontanellesi.Largest is anterior fontanelle– between frontal and parietal bones (closes @ 18-24 mos.)ii.Posterior fontanelle– between occipital and parietal bones, smaller (closes 3-6 mos.)c.Sagittal Suture– midline between 2 parietal bonesd.Coronal Suture – where 2 parietal bones meet frontal bonee.Lambdoid Suture – between occipital and parietal bone – shaped like a f.Occipitomastoid Suture– between mastoid part of temporal bone and occipital boneg.Squamosal Suture – between parietal and temporal bones in temporal fossah.Parietomastoid Suture – between mastoid part of temporal bone and parietal bonei.Metopic Suture – two frontal bones joined in suture (usually gone by 8 yrs., but can remain)j.With age, fibrous tissue in sutures is replaced by bone, forming synostosisk.Sutural (Wormian) bones – small bones located variably at suture lines in some skullsi.Most commonly associated with lambdoid sutureIII.Craniometric PointsLandmarkShape & LocationPterionJunction of sphenoid, temporal, parietal, and frontal bones – superior to zygomatic arch, posterior to frontal process of zygomatic bone (thin, fractures can tear anterior br. middle meningeal a. = hematomaLambdaJunction of lambdoid and sagittal suturesBregmaJunction of coronal and sagittal suturesVertexMost superior point of craniumAsterionJunction of parietomastoid, occipitomastoid, and lambdoid suturesGlabellaMost anterior part of forehead, on frontal boneInionMost prominent point of external occipital protuberanceNasionJunction of frontonasal and internasal suturesIV.Facial Musclesa.Lie in subcutaneous tissue on face and scalp, innervated by CN VIIb.Primary action: pull on skin, act as sphincters and dilators of facial orifices, alter facial expressionsc.Modiolus is lateral to angle of mouth, where fibers of many of these muscles interlaceMuscles of Facial Expression: Forehead, Nose, & EarMuscleOriginInsertionMain ActionOccipitofrontalis (frontal)Epicranial aponeurosisSkin & subcutaneous tissueof eyebrows + foreheadElevate eyebrows, wrinklesskin and foreheadProcerusNasal bone, lateral nasal cartilageSkin of lower forehead between eyebrowsPulls medial angle of eyebrows inferiorly, making wrinkles over noseOrbicularis oculiMedial orbital margin, medial palpebral ligament, lacrimal boneSkin around margin of orbit, superior and inferior tarsal platesActs as orbital sphincterCloses eyelidsPalpebral portion gently closesOrbital portion tightly

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Occipital bone, Bones of the head and neck, frontal bone, Arteries of the head and neck

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