Study Guide Test 2 - Know the cultures(including rough ages...

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Know the cultures (including rough ages, general geographic location, social features [religion, political structure, writing systems, etc.], and subsistence strategy): Chavin o 3,000 BP, Peru, art-religious, metallurgy, controlled and relied on trade, social stratification Egyptian o 7,000 BP hunter gatherers, city-states around until 5100 BP, 3 million people total 75% farmers, pyramid age-4700-4500 BP, hieroglyphics appear 5200 BP- record keeping, trade, documentary, records of the dead Harappan o 4,500-4,000 BP, Indus river valley major cities, 40-80,000 people, specialized workers, trade with Mesopotamia, Indus script Kebaran o 15,000-13,000 BP, SW Asia, hunter-gatherers, used microliths, focused on hunting Khmer o 802-1,430 AD, SE Asia, King Jayavarman – conquered competing kingdoms and made them tribute kingdoms to tax, Anger Wat becomes capital built 1113 AD, largest religious structure ever built Linearbandkeramik (LBK) o 6500 BP, consumed grains, one of earliest examples of agriculture in western Europe Maglemosian o 10,700- 10,400 BP Europe, increased sedentism and broad sustenance, hazelnut important resource, seafood/shellfish used along coast
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Minoans o 3,650-3,420 BP, Crete, Linear A written language, ideal for sea trade, trade could have sparked complexity, Knossos- capital, Natufian o 15,000-13,000 BP, SW Asia, emerged from Kebaran, greater reliance on plants, lived along woodland belt Nubians o 2 cultures: Kerma Nubia 3500-2800 BP 1 st complex civilization south of Egypt, deffufa towers, Meroe Nubia 2500-2200 BP most complex civilization south of Egypt, Nubian pyramids Olmec o 3250-2500 BP, tropical lowlands on gulf of Mexico coast, chiefdom society, small farming communities, monumental ritual centers with art and architecture, earliest writing in the new world (glyph) Samarran o 7500-6800 BP, Mesopotamia, villages housed 1000 people, required irrigation, evidence of monumental works, status differentiation in burials, relied on agriculture Shang o 4,000-3,100 years ago, China, 1 st urban state level society, powerful army, Anyang site- 11 kings with elaborate burials, bronze metallurgy Sumerians o 5,000-4,300 BP, Mesopotamia, 20 urban centers, relied on trade for goods, extreme social stratification seen in architecture, graves, human sacrifice
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Know the following time periods (including general subsistence strategy and age ranges): Mesolithic o Follows the Paleolithic and precedes the appearance of farming cultures o More socially complex hunter-gathering societies in some areas o Regional trade, shorter traveling distances, but more trade goods o Canoes, bow and arrow, dog domestication Neolithic o “pre-dynastic Egypt” o 7,000-5,000 BP o Increased use of domesticated animals and agriculture, social inequality, development of city-states New World Archaic o Early to mid Holocene, 9,000-3,000 BP o Broader subsistence base o Tool diversity and technological innovations o Intensification of plant use Know the following sites (including age, the culture with which it is associated, architecture): Abu Hereyra o 11,000 BP, Syria, earliest tamers, documents transition from foraging to farming Angkor Wat
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