Bio122-exam1

Bio122-exam1 - Biology 122: Exam 1 Chapter 12 Cancer Cancer...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 122: Exam 1 Chapter 12 Cancer Cancer is unregulated cell division Produces a tumor A Tumor is a mass of cells (tissue) with no apparent function Difference between a benign tumor, a malignant, and a metastatic tumor Benign Tumor Cells stay in one place Cells do not invade surrounding tissues Benign Tumors are considered non-cancerous Can change from the benign condition Malignant Tumor Malignant Tumors are considered cancerous Invade surrounding tissues Metastatic Tumor Cells can break loose and travel to other locations Metastatic Tumors can establish cancer in other places Difference between proto-onco genes and onco genes Proto-Onco Genes Proto means Before Onco means Cancer If mutuation occurs a proto-onco can become an onco Onco Genes Cancer-causing Things that trigger mutation of proto-onco to onco Biology 122: Exam 1 Movement of DNA within a Genome Amplification of a proto-onco gene Point mutations in a control element or in the proto-onco itself Describe the three phases of Interphase what happens in each of these phases? G1- First Gap cell growth Duplicate organelles Cells get larger to accommodate additional cytoplasmic material S- Synthesis DNA is copied Results in two copies of each chromosome DNA within nucleus is uncondensed G2 Second Gap cell growth More cell growth in preparation for cell division Describe what happens during each phase of mitosis (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) Prophase Dissolution of nuclear membrane begins Formation of spindle fibers Centrosomes/microtubule Centrosomes migrate to either end of the cell Chromatin Fibers coil and condense chromosomes Prometaphase Microtubules (spindles) grow towards centromere Microtubules attach to kinetochore Kinetochore is the structure of proteins and DNA at centromere Biology 122: Exam 1 Condensed chromosomes begin to move towards center of cell Duplicated sister chromatids Metaphase Centrosomes at opposite poles of cell Duplicated chromosomes align along metaphase plate(end to end) Chromosomes arranged perpendicular to spindle fibers Some Microtubles attached to Kinetochore Anaphase Paired centromeres/sister chromatids separate Kinetochore microtubules shorten Daughter chromosomes pulled toward centrosome Telophase Daughter chromosomes at opposite ends of cell Nuclear membranes begin formation Condensed chromosomes elongate(uncoil) Describe what happens during Cytokinesis Cytokinesis Formation of cleavage furrow Divides cytoplasm Formation of daughter cells Describe how the chromosome number changes throughout the human life cycle You inherit 46 chromosomes, one set of 23 from each parent They combine in the nucleus of a single cell when a sperm cell from your father...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course BIO 122 taught by Professor Girman during the Spring '08 term at Sonoma.

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Bio122-exam1 - Biology 122: Exam 1 Chapter 12 Cancer Cancer...

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