Unit3_Gases_part2 copy - The Kinetic-Molecular Theory The basic assumptions of the Kinetic-Molecular theory are 1 Gases consist of discrete molecules

Unit3_Gases_part2 copy - The Kinetic-Molecular Theory The...

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The Kinetic-Molecular Theory The basic assumptions of the Kinetic-Molecular theory are: 1. Gases consist of discrete molecules that are relatively far apart. At ordinary temperatures and pressures, the volume occupied by the gas molecules is extremely small compared to the total volume of the container. 2. Gaseous molecules are in continuous, rapid, random, straight-line motion with varying velocities. 3. Collisions between gaseous molecules and of gaseous molecules with the walls of the container are elastic, i.e., there is no net transfer of energy. 4. Between collisions, gas molecules exert no attractive or repulsive forces on one another. Instead, each molecule travels in a straight line with constant velocity. Velocity – The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution 1
Gas molecules do not move at the same velocity. The velocity distribution is illustrated by the Maxwell-Boltzman distribution. - en.svg.png Velocity distribution depends on the mass of the gas particles. Particles that are lighter move faster and have a broader velocity distribution. The average velocity and the width of the distribution depend on the temperature. At higher temperature, particles move faster and have a broader velocity distribution. Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution at different temperatures A plot of relative number of N 2 molecules with a given velocity at three different temperatures Zumdahl, S. S. Chemical Principles , 6 th ed.; Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2010 The Meaning of Temperature 2

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