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Fall 2011Feldman - 1Study Guide for Chapter 1 - Psychological ScienceI.Psychology as a scienceA.Characteristics of science1. Systematic empiricism2.Public knowledgea.Replicationb.Unbiased, objective3.Testable problems (falsifiable)4.Set of attitudesa.Skepticismb.CuriosityII.Steps in the scientific method: The research processA.Begin with: Theory(Presents two or more variables and specifies the relationship between these variable), Daily Experiences, Commonly Held BeliefsB.Research QuestionC.Hypothesis(a prediction about the relationship between 2 or more variables)D.Evidence (Research study)E.Drawing ConclusionsF.Theory construction OR modificationG.New research questions OR hypothesesIII.Goals of the scientific method: Description, Prediction, ExplanationA.Description1.Methods of observation
Fall 2011Feldman - 2a.Naturalistic observationb.Laboratory observationc.Participant observationd.Case studye.Survey researchi.Population(the entire group of people of interest to the researcher) vs. sample(a smaller group selected from the population for study)ii.RepresentativenessoRepresentativesample(reflects the characteristics of the population) vs. biasedsample (does not reflect the characteristics of the population)oSampling techniquesoProbability sampling(every member of the population has somechance of being in the sample)oRandom sample(every member of the population has an equalchance of being in the sample)oSystematic sampling(every kth element is sampled after a randomly determined start; k= any number)oStratified sampling(a sample drawn so that identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample)oNonprobability sampling oConvenience sampling(most common of all sampling techniques) participants are chosen simply because they are easy to recruit (e.g., Introductory Psychology students)iii.Sources of bias in survey researchoThe intervieweroInterviewer biasoThe participantoCarelessnessoMemory problems (under/over reporting)oDirect misrepresentation (lie)oSocial desirability
Fall 2011Feldman - 3oThe sampleoSelection bias(occurs when the procedures used to select the sample result in the overrepresentation OR underrepresentation of some segment of the population)oResponse bias(occurs when people choose not to participate in a sample AFTER they have been sampled)B.