Study guide exam 1 - Fall 2011 Feldman 1 Study Guide for Chapter 1 Psychological Science I Psychology as a science A Characteristics of science 1

Study guide exam 1 - Fall 2011 Feldman 1 Study Guide for...

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Fall 2011 Feldman - 1 Study Guide for Chapter 1 - Psychological Science I. Psychology as a science A. Characteristics of science 1. Systematic empiricism 2. Public knowledge a. Replication b. Unbiased, objective 3. Testable problems (falsifiable) 4. Set of attitudes a. Skepticism b. Curiosity II. Steps in the scientific method: The research process A. Begin with: Theory (Presents two or more variables and specifies the relationship between these variable), Daily Experiences , Commonly Held Beliefs B. Research Question C. Hypothesis (a prediction about the relationship between 2 or more variables) D. Evidence (Research study) E. Drawing Conclusions F. Theory construction OR modification G. New research questions OR hypotheses III. Goals of the scientific method: Description, Prediction, Explanation A. Description 1. Methods of observation
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Fall 2011 Feldman - 2 a. Naturalistic observation b. Laboratory observation c. Participant observation d. Case study e. Survey research i. Population (the entire group of people of interest to the researcher) vs. sample (a smaller group selected from the population for study) ii. Representativeness o Representative sample (reflects the characteristics of the population) vs. biased sample (does not reflect the characteristics of the population) o Sampling techniques o Probability sampling (every member of the population has some chance of being in the sample) o Random sample (every member of the population has an equal chance of being in the sample) o Systematic sampling (every k th element is sampled after a randomly determined start; k = any number) o Stratified sampling (a sample drawn so that identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample) o Nonprobability sampling o Convenience sampling (most common of all sampling techniques) participants are chosen simply because they are easy to recruit (e.g., Introductory Psychology students) iii. Sources of bias in survey research o The interviewer o Interviewer bias o The participant o Carelessness o Memory problems (under/over reporting) o Direct misrepresentation (lie) o Social desirability
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Fall 2011 Feldman - 3 o The sample o Selection bias (occurs when the procedures used to select the sample result in the overrepresentation OR underrepresentation of some segment of the population) o Response bias (occurs when people choose not to participate in a sample AFTER they have been sampled) B.
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