CSDL3 - Anatomy Of Respiration Structures of Respiration...

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Unformatted text preview: Anatomy Of Respiration Structures of Respiration Bony thorax Visceral thorax Muscles 1 The Rib Cage Forms the front, sides, and back of the bony thorax Mobility Consists of 12 thoracic vertebrae Sternum 12 pairs of ribs The Rib Cage 2 The Ribs Articulate with vertebral column via arthrodial (gliding) joints True Ribs (1-7) articulate directly with Sternum via (1cartilage Vertebrosternal ribs Chondral (cartilaginous) portion of the rib False Ribs (8-10) connect indirectly with sternum (8Vertebrochondral ribs Chondral portion runs superiorly to attach to the sternum Floating Ribs (11 & 12) are not connected anteriorly Vertebral ribs Attach only to the vertebral column The Ribs 3 The Sternum The Sternum Landmarks Manubrium sterni Upper portion Suprasternal notch Articulation with clavicle Corpus sterni Large center portion Ensiform (Xiphoid) Process Manubrosternal angle Juncture btwn manubrium and corpus 4 The Visceral Thorax Respiratory passageway Mouth & nose Trachea & bronchi Lungs Mediastinum The Trachea Composed of 16-20 horseshoe shaped rings Flexible, approx 11 cm in length First cartilage ring is connected to the larynx by cricotracheal ligaments Carina trachea Mainstem bronchi Point where the last cartilage bifurcates to connect with the mainstem bronchi Bronchial tubes Serve the right & left lungs 5 The Trachea The Trachea Composed of hyaline cartilage rings Rings connected by fibroelastic membrane Smooth muscle covers gap between the rings Diameter of trachea can increase to deliver air to the lungs 6 The Bronchial Tree Series of increasingly smaller tubes Progresses into the lungs Levels: Trachea Mainstem bronchi Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi Terminal respiratory bronchioles The Bronchial Tree 7 The Lungs Spongy, elastic tissue Vascular supply & air sacs Composed of blood, arterial & venous network, connective tissue Also contain some smooth muscle fibers The Lungs Right: 3 lobes, separated by fissures Left: 2 lobes, heart & mediastinal structures 8 Mediastinum Center portion on thorax Contains Heart Major blood vessels Esophagus Lesser lymph nodes Bronchioles Smaller divisions of bronchi End with the terminal respiratory bronchioles Terminal bronchioles communicate with the alveolar ducts, which open into the air sacs of the lungs The air sacs have small depressions Alveoli 9 Alveoli About 300 million in a healthy lung Elaborate capillary network Site where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged Pleural Membranes Lungs & inner thorax are completely covered with a pleural lining Provides an air-tight seal that allows the lungs to follow movement of the thorax Composed of elastic & fibrous tissue Venules & lymphocytes 10 Pleural Membranes Parietal pleurae Covers inner thoracic cavity Visceral pleurae Covers outer surface of the lungs Cuboidal cells in the pleural lining produce surfactant Muscles Of Respiration Muscles of Inhalation Thorax Neck Back Muscles of Exhalation Thorax Abdomen Back 11 The Diaphragm Primary muscle of inspiration Separates the thorax from the abdomen At the middle is a large aponeurosis Central tendon Attachments Vertebral Costal Sternal Diaphragmatic Hiatuses Aortic hiatus Descending abdominal aorta Esophageal hiatus Esophagus Foramen vena cava Inferior vena cava 12 The Diaphragm Diaphragm, Sternal Head O: Xiphoid process of the sternum I: Central tendon In: Phrenic nerve Function: 13 Diaphragm, Costal Head O: Inferior margin of ribs 7-12 I: Central tendon In: Phrenic nerve Fn: Diaphragm, Vertebral Head O: Corpus of L1, transverse processes of L1-L5 I: Central tendon In: Phrenic nerve Fn: 14 Accessory Muscles of Inspiration Anterior External Intercostal Interchondral portion, internal intercostal Posterior Levatores costarum (brevis & longis) Serratus posterior superior External Intercostal Muscles O: Inferior surface of ribs 1-11 I: Upper surface of rib immediately below In: Intercostal nerves Fn: 15 Internal Intercostal Muscles, Interchondral Portion O: Inferior margin of ribs 1-11 I: superior surface of the rib below In: Intercostal nerves Fn: Levator Costarum, Longis O: Transverse processes of T7-T10 I: two ribs below the point of origin In: Intercostal nerves Fn: 16 Levator Costarum, Brevis O: Transverse processes of C7-T11 I: Tubercle of the rib below In: Intercostal nerves Fn: Serratus Posterior Superior O: Spinous processes of C7 & T1-T3 I: Just beyond the angles of ribs 2-5 In: Spinal nerves T1T4 17 Accessory Muscles of the Neck Sternocleidomastoid (Sternomastoid) Scalenes Anterior Middle Posterior Sternocleidomastoid O: Mastoid process of the temporal bone I: Sternal Head: superior manubrium sterni Clavicular Head: superior surface of the clavicle In: Accessory Nerve (XI) Fn: 18 Scalenus Anterior O: Transverse processes of C3-C6 I: Superior surface of rib 1 In: C4-C6 Fn: Scalenus Medius O: Transverse processes of C2-C7 I: Superior surface of rib 1 In: C3, C4 Fn: 19 Scalenus Posterior O: Transverse processes of C5-C7 I: Second rib In: C5-C8 Fn: Upper Arm & Shoulder Muscles Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Serratus Anterior Subclavius Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Trapezius 20 Pectoralis Major O: Sternal Head: length of sternum at the costal cartilages Clavicular Head: anterior clavicle I: Greater tubercle of the humerus In: C4-C7, T1 C4Fn: Pectoralis Minor O: Anterior surface of ribs 2-5, near the chondral margin I: Coracoid process of the scapula In: C4-C7, T1 Fn: 21 Serratus Anterior O: Ribs 1-9, lateral surface of the thorax I: Inner vertebral border of the scapula In: C5-C7 Fn: Subclavius O: Inferior surface of the clavicle I: Superior surface of rib 1 at the chondral margin In: Spinal nerves 5 &6 Fn: 22 Levator Scapulae O: Transverse processes of C1-C4 I: Medial border of the scapula In: C3-C5 Fn: Rhomboideus Major O: Spinous processes of T2-T5 I: Scapula In: C5 Fn: 23 Rhomboideus Minor O: Spinous processes of C7 and T1 I: Medial border of the scapula In: C5 Fn: Trapezius O: Spinous processes of C2 to T12 I: Acromion of scapula & superior surface of the clavicle In: Accessory (XI) Fn: 24 ...
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