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Chapter 6: Social InequalitySocial Stratification:-Social system that ranks large groups of people into a hierarchy to show their social prestigeand relative privileges-A way of ranking people according to their power, property, and prestige-Every society stratifies its members in some form that shows their relative power and privileges-Stratification is universalSystems of Social Stratification:-Slavery-Modern slavery is referred to ashuman trafficking or indentured service-Although this exploitation is often not called slavery, the conditions are the sameoPeople are sold like objects, forced to work for little or no pay and are at the mercy oftheir 'employers‘oWomen are bonded into prostitutionoChildren are trafficked-Human trafficking is a relatively new criminal offence in Canada, introduced into the CriminalCode in 2005-Indentured service:bonded labor; fuzzy line between contract and slaveryoMillions of men, women and children are used as forced and bonded labour-Caste system-A process of placing people in occupational groups-Group membership/status is ascribed (hereditary), determined by birth and is lifelong-Marriages are endogamous (prohibit caste intermarriage)oe.g., IndiaoAlmost 3000 years of caste systemoCaste based on religionoIndian government officially abolished it in 1949 but is still activeoFour main castes + harijansoBeneath the caste system, the untouchables-Clan system(large network of relatives; your status depends on clan you are born into)-Typical/common in agricultural societies-Group membership is ascribed (determined at birth), and is lifelong-Marriages are exogamousoCan cross clan linesoOften used for alliances-Class systemoBased on money, material possessions, power, and prestige; measures of social classoThe child isascribedthe class status of his/her parentsoCan change over a lifetimeoWhile a more open system of social stratification, still generates profound socialdifferences & inequalityoLow levels of class awarenessGlobal Stratification and the Status of Women:
Worldwide:-In every society of the world, gender is a foundation for social stratification-Gender distinctions always privilege malesoThe world men’s earning are higher than women’soIn Canada, 77.5 cents for every $ men makeoHigher literacy among menoMost of the world’s illiterates are female (two third)Defining Social Class-Most sociologists define social class in Weberian terms:oAs the relative social location of a person or group within a society, based on wealth,power, prestige or other valued resourcesoOr, as a large group of people who rank closely to one another in wealth, power, andprestige and occupy a similar economic/social position-Differences in wealth, power and prestige result in:oDifferent lifestylesoDifferent life chancesoAccess to resources (food, education, shelter, health care, holidays, employment, etc.)-Distinct ways of looking at the worldMeasures of Social Class-SubjectiveoAsks people to classify themselves-Reputationalo