Experiment 2

# Experiment 2 - 1 Experiment 2 OPTICS PHY 134(Section 11 2...

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1 Experiment 2. OPTICS PHY 134 (Section 11)

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2 Purpose The experiment was done to observe light behavior in different media, including air, water, concave lens, and convex lens. Apparatus Helium-neon laser, water, protractor, converging lens, diverging lens, ruler, lamp, screen, object, and pin. Theory For the first experiment, ‘Reflection and Refraction,’ the concepts of law of reflection and refraction were used. The law of reflection states that the incident ray and the reflected ray are in the same plane normal to the surface, and the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence: θ r = θ i (Figure 1). Figure 1. Specular reflection and refraction of light. The law of refraction, also known as Snell’s law states that if a ray refracts between medium 1 and medium 2, having indicies of refraction n 1 and n 2 , the ray angles θ i and θ R in the two media are related by the equation, n 1 sin θ i = n 2 sin θ R (Figure 1) .
3 Then, two different types of thin lenses were used in the second experiment: converging lens and diverging lens. The converging lens causes the rays to refract toward the optical axis. The common point which initial parallel rays pass is called the focal point of the lens. The distance of the focal point from the lens is called the focal length of the lens ( f) (Figure 2) . A diverging lens refracts parallel rays away from the optical axis. This lens also has a focal point (Figure 3). Figure 2. The focal point and focal length of converging lens Figure 3. The focal point and focal length of diverging lens Focal length was calculated using the equation, 1/f = 1/d o + 1/d i , where f is focal length, d o is object distance, and d i is image distance. Magnification of lenses were also considered and calculated using the equation, M=h i /h o =d i /d o , where h i indicates height of the image and h o

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