Complete ID List - Cassandra(Ottoman Empire Turkey Millet...

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Cassandra (Ottoman Empire. Turkey) Millet system Definition: Virtually autonomous religious communities within the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman term specifically refers to the separate legal courts pertaining to personal law under which minorities were allowed to rule themselves (in cases not involving any Muslim) with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government. o Initially organized people based soley on religion. The Muslim millet included uArabs, Kurds, Turks, converts, etc, despite the fact that they were of different ethnic origin and spoke different languages. i.e. A Greek Catholic felt more connected to an Italian Catholic than a Greek Orthodox Christian. o The head of a millet reported directly to the Ottoman Sultan. The millets had a lot of power — they set their own laws and collected and distributed their own taxes. All that was insisted was loyalty to the Empire. When a member of one millet committed a crime against a member of another, the law of the injured party applied, but the ruling Islamic majority being paramount, any dispute involving a Muslim fell under their sharia−based law. Time: Developed in 18th century pre-secular Ottoman Empire Significance: Symbolizes that the Ottoman Empire made no attempt at assimilation, rather they strove for integration that allowed the empire to run more smoothly. This was also a source of contention between Russia, Britain, and the port, as the system was based on privileges for religious communities. o The Ottoman System lost the mechanisms of its existence from the assignment of protection of citizen rights of their subjects to other states. People were not citizens of the Ottoman Empire anymore but of other states, due to the Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire to European powers, protecting the rights of their citizens within the Empire. The Russians became formal Protectors of Eastern Orthodox groups, the French of Roman Catholics and the British of Jews and other groups. o Each millet became increasingly independent with the establishment of their own schools, churches, hospitals and other facilities. These activities effectively moved the Christian population outside the framework of the Ottoman political system. Janissary Existed from 1330-1826 Replaced the former army composed of disloyal tribal ghazis Christian youths between 12-20, who were taken from their families, converted to Islam, and were trained as part of the Ottoman army. They eventually joined the ruling elite Strengthened the sultans power, as opposed to tribal chiefs, because there was only one loyalty, to the Ottoman sultan Operated under the Devshirme system Way of integrating conquered Christian communities into the imperial system Fell into disarray during the crisis of the 17 th century: As inflation and debasement of currency had affected them, they began to enroll their children into the system (which was forbidden) and join guilds in order to augment their pay; their old discipline and respect thus disappeared
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course HIST 443 taught by Professor Cole during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Complete ID List - Cassandra(Ottoman Empire Turkey Millet...

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