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The Syrian Civil War (2011-2018)Conflict Analysis and Mapping Paper: The Syrian Civil War (2011-2018)bySophamonyoudom Prom
The Syrian Civil War (2011-2018)AbstractThis research paper aims to provide an evidence-based analysis of the Syrian civil warbased on credible, objective and cited sources. This paper will look at key factorsassociated with the war in order to understand the complexity of it. Starting from peopledemanding more civil rights non-violently to people arming themselves and demanding theresignation of the Syrian government, the mounting resentment towards the Assadgovernment drove the social unrest in Syria to become a civil war in 2012 (ARK, 2016).The war in Syria initially was an intrastate conflict between the Syrian government andinternal armed rebel groups. The Syrian government has always wanted to suppress therebel groups to obliterate any secession tendencies, while the rebel groups have soughtto challenge the military dictatorship rule of the government and to overthrow the regime.However, the intrastate conflict in Syria escalated into internationalized intrastate conflictwhen regional and global powers split into pro- and anti-Assad blocs and insertedthemselves into the conflict (Pillon, 2014). In addition, the rise of the Islamic State of Iraqand Syria (ISIS) added pressure for international allies of the Syrian government and ofthe rebel groups to become more active in the conflict, making the conflict to become moredeadly (Asrar, 2017). However, the collapse of ISIS self-declared caliphate in Syria hasresulted in a de-escalation. Nonetheless, daily fighting continues in some areas and in turnexacerbates the number of casualties (Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect,2018).
The Syrian Civil War (2011-2018)I.IntroductionThe civil war in Syria has been happening over seven years since 2011 under theAssad government (Asrar, 2017). The conflict is almost entirely happening within Syrianborders (See Figure 2) (Pillon, 2014). The conflict started as an intrastate war betweenthe Shiite-dominated Syrian government forces and the predominantly Sunni rebel groups.However, the conflict has become an internationalized intrastate war due to both mainactors to the conflict have international allies. The insertion of international actors to theconflict has raised the prospect of regional proxy war, pitting regional and internationalpowers against each other to compete for regional power. In addition, there is also asectarian dimension to the conflict especially ever since the rise of ISIS in 2014, primarilythe sectarian war between Shiite-dominated groups and Sunni-dominated groups(University of Pennsylvania, 2017). The primary conflict of interest between the twoopposing groups is: the government side wants to keep the Syrian government in power,whereas the rebel side wants to overthrow the government.