Brief history of IPC Communication studies started in Ancient Greece with the study of rhetoric. It was housed in the English department as public speaking instructors. The Chicago school began branching off. Research was influenced by social psychologists and was mostly devoted to improving relationships. Motivations for communication Meets physical needs Meets relational needs Fills identity needs Meets spiritual needs Serves instrumental needs Three models of communication Action model: starts with a source who encodes a message and sends it through a channel to a receiver who decodes the message. Likely to be noise. Simplistic. Interaction model: Includes the same elements as the action model but also recognizes that communication is a two-way process and includes feedback and context. Transaction model: doesn't distinguish between roles of source and receiver. It's all simultaneous. Six characteristics of communication Communication relies on multiple channels Communication passes through perceptual filters People give communication meaning Communication has literal meaning and relational implications Communication sends a message whether intentional or unintentional Communication is governed by rules Myths of communication Everyone is an expert in communication Communication will solve any problem Communication can break down Communication is inherently good More communication is always better Characteristics of IPC IPC occurs between two people IPC occurs within a relationship IPC evolves within relationships IPC negotiates and defines relationships Three different relationships Role relationships: functional/casual, people are interchangeable/not unique. Interpersonal but not relational. Interpersonal relationships: some level of mutual influence, repeated interaction, friends and relational needs are fulfilled. Intimate or close relationships: enduring bonds, emotional attachment, need fulfillment (central personal needs) and irreplaceable. Culture
The system of learned and shared symbols, language values and norms that distinguish one group of people from another. Group of people who share a five culture is a society. Culture is learned = enculturation. Components include symbols, values, language and norms. Co-culture Groups of people who share values, customs and norms related to mutual characteristics besides their national citizenship. Composed of smaller groups of people with whom we identify. Could be based on shared activities or beliefs. People often identify with multiple co-cultures. Ethnocentrism The belief that your own group or culture is superior to other groups or cultures, Asians are short, but what if we are just tall? Dimensions of culture Individualism and collectivism Low and high context cultures Low and high power distance cultures Masculine and feminine cultures Monochronic and polychromic cultures Uncertainty avoidance Cultural communication codes (idioms, jargon, gestures) Self concept Composed of those stable ideas about who you are. It is your identity. Self concepts are: multifaceted, partly subjective and enduring but changeable.
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