Unformatted text preview: of 8 Classroom Management II Reinforcement Nervous about classroom management? Reasonable considering... You are responsible for what happens in your class during the year, yet Your control/authority is largely illusional You can't MAKE your students attend, work, or learn Much of teaching is motivating your students of 8 Reinforcement: The Sum and Substance of Classroom Management REINFORCEMENT THEORY Consequences influence behavior Three basic principles Consequences which give Rewards increase a behavior (Reinforcement) Consequences which give Punishments decrease a behavior (Punishment) Consequences which give neither Rewards nor Punishments extinguish a behavior (Ignoring) Two major dimensions of Reinforcement: positive and negative of 8 (both serve to increase a behavior) verbal and nonverbal For our purposes the definitions are: Positive giving a reward that Encourages desirable behavior or Encourages the absence of of 8 undesirable behavior Negative removing/avoiding a unpleasant stimulus that Encourages desirable behavior Examples
Positive reinforcement: Gold star for good work Candy treat for good behavior Allowance for doing chores Kiss for gift Negative reinforcement: Rat presses level to stop electrical shock Taking aspirin for a headache Using a pacifier to stop a child from crying Leaving early to avoid traffic Changing an "F" after a successful makeup quiz Punishment Done to decrease behaviors Positive punishment: add an unpleasant consequence to discourage behavior from being repeated Negative punishment: removing a pleasant stimulus to discourage behavior from being repeated Examples (not recommendations!)
Positive (adding something) Punishment Extra homework Spanking Scolding Negative (taking away) Punishment Taking away privileges* Taking away recess Subtracting points on an assignment * only recommendation Overview Reinforcement done when you want to increase a behavior Punishment done when you want to decrease a behavior Positive involves adding/giving something Negative involves taking something away Reinforce readily; Punish only when prior efforts fail Our focus is on using positive reinforcement (so the following slides say reinforcement, but the ideas also apply to punishment) Your best tool But remember, you are not the only one who can reinforce a behavior, peers can too. How is the class clown reinforced for his/her behavior? Sometimes ignoring behavior works; sometimes discussions with students work; sometimes punishment is necessary of 8 Categories of Reinforcement Verbal Reinforcement Nonverbal Reinforcement body language words Elements of Reinforcement Tone Variety of 8 Frequency Strength Timing Setting Predictability of 8 Elements of Reinforcement (cont.) Token Source Permanence Silence Multiple cues Multichannel DWA's classroom management strategy in a nut shell Use positive reinforcement (rewards, praise, etc.) all the time to encourage the behaviors you want Give kids lots of privileges to have a more student centered, studentinvolved class AND so you have something to take away if positive reinforcement fails (aka keep kids as far away from the door as possible) Bad Quiz Question If Samuel is caught pulling Tammy's hair and the teacher says something to stop this, which classroom management technique is the teacher using? A. Positive reinforcement B. Negative reinforcement C. Verbal reinforcement D. Physical reinforcement ...
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- Fall '08
- Substance of Classroom Management, Reinforcement Nonverbal Reinforcement