History 2C Study Guide for Midterm

History 2C Study Guide for Midterm - History 2C Study Guide...

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History 2C Study Guide for Midterm 1. The Social Contract – it’s a book written in 1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who identified with simple working people and deeply resented the privileges enjoyed by elite classes. In the book, Rousseau argued that members of a society were collectively the sovereign. In an ideal society all individuals would participate directly in the formulation of policy and the creation of laws. In the absence of royalty, aristocrats, or other privileged elites, the general will of the people would carry the day. 2. Confucianism – Philosophy based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Kong Fuzi, or Confucius, that emphasizes order, the role of the gentleman, obligation to society, and reciprocity. From 1860 to 1895, Qing authorities tried to fashion an efficient and benevolent Confucian government to solve social and economic problems while also adopting foreign technology to strengthen state power. 3. Neo-Confucianism – Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought; most important of the early Neo-Confucianists was the Chinese thinker Zhu Xi. 4. Janissaries – Ottoman sultan’s household troops and bodyguards. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Janissaries repeatedly masterminded palace coups and by the nineteenth century had become a powerful political force within the Ottoman state. However, the Janissaries neglected their military training and turned a blind eye to advances in weapons technology. As its military capacity declined, the Ottoman realm became vulnerable to its more powerful neighbors. 5.
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History 2C Study Guide for Midterm - History 2C Study Guide...

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