# Fluids in motion.ppt - Fluid Motion Paul E. Tippens The...

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The lower falls atYellowstoneNational Park: thewater at the top ofthe falls passesthrough a narrowslot, causing thevelocity to increaseat that point. In thischapter, we willstudy the physics offluids in motion.Fluid MotionPaul E. Tippens
Objectives: After completingObjectives: After completingthis module, you should bethis module, you should beable to:able to:Define theDefine therate of flowrate of flowfor a fluid andfor a fluid andsolve problems using velocity and cross-solve problems using velocity and cross-section.section.Write and applyWrite and applyBernoulli’s equationBernoulli’s equationforforthe general case and apply for (a) a fluidthe general case and apply for (a) a fluidat rest, (b) a fluid at constant pressure,at rest, (b) a fluid at constant pressure,and (c) flow through a horizontal pipe.and (c) flow through a horizontal pipe.
Fluids in MotionFluids in MotionAll fluids are assumedin this treatment toexhibit streamline flow.Streamline flowis the motion of a fluid inwhich every particle in the fluid follows thesame path past a particular point as thatfollowed by previous particles.Streamline flowis the motion of a fluid inwhich every particle in the fluid follows thesame path past a particular point as thatfollowed by previous particles.
Assumptions for FluidAssumptions for FluidFlow:Flow:Streamline flowTurbulent flowAll fluids move with streamline flow.The fluids are incompressible.There is no internal friction.All fluids move with streamline flow.The fluids are incompressible.There is no internal friction.
Rate of FlowRate of FlowTheTherate ofrate offlowflowRRis defined as the volumeis defined as the volumeVVof a fluidof a fluidthat passes a certain cross-sectionthat passes a certain cross-sectionAAper unit of timeper unit of timett..The volumeThe volumeVVof fluid is given byof fluid is given bythe product of areathe product of areaAAandandvtvt::VAvtAvtRvAtRate of flow = velocity x areavtVolume =A(vt)A
Constant Rate of FlowConstant Rate of FlowFor an incompressible, frictionless fluid, theFor an incompressible, frictionless fluid, thevelocity increases when the cross-sectionvelocity increases when the cross-sectiondecreases:decreases:1122Rv Av AA1A2R = A1v1= A2v2v1v2v2221122v dv d
Example 1:Example 1:Water flows through aWater flows through arubber hoserubber hose2 cm2 cmin diameter at ain diameter at avelocity ofvelocity of4 m/s4 m/s. What must be the. What must be thediameter of the nozzle in order that thediameter of the nozzle in order that thewater emerge atwater emerge at16 m/s16 m/s?

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