COMM_203_Chapter_Notes

COMM_203_Chapter_Notes - COMM 203 Chapter Notes A...

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COMM 203 Chapter Notes  A Scientific Approach to the Study of Media Effects The mass media must the share the blame for incidents such as Columbine  (blamed on video games) Gallup Poll (3 weeks after Columbine shooting)- 12% thought the root of the  problem was the unrestricted proliferation of guns  Ways of Knowing 1. Experience direct experience/ empiricism- a very reliable path to knowledge learning from experience can also come from trial and error experience can sometimes prove to be misleading   2. Authority sometimes trusting an authority can cause you to have a shortcut in thinking  that all results of that conclusion are authoritative o ex: trusting every doctor because they generally know more than we  do about medical cures  reliance on authority resulted in incorrect beliefs  3. Science Science- a particular way of knowing; combines empiricism with logical  thought and is always pressing onward towards greater precision of  observation  Systematic observation vs. casual observation  Science suffers from human shortcomings, but is the most powerful “way of  knowing” humans possess  In order to understand scientific method, it is important to understand goals of  science  Goals of Science
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1. Prediction accurate prediction/telling of the future is coveted in science (science is in a  continual pursuit of prediction)   2. Explanation knowing why something occurs the way it does place phenomenon to be explained into a broader framework or pattern that  doesn’t really require much additional elaboration explanations are continuously scrutinized   science always encourages  additional scrutiny  3. Understanding knowing the particular sequence of casual events that unfold  4. Control  when one can accurately predict/explain/understand a phenomenon  o ex: scientists understanding the forces that cause a tornado o ex: rating systems for movies  How are the Goals of Science Achieved? 1.Theory generates experiments testing, data and analysis  scientific theory is more than just an idea o consists of more than one statement   identifies the key concepts of  the theory and specifies how they are related  o yield hypotheses that are testable by observation.  Hypothesis- a specific prediction about what will happen under a  certain set of well-specified conditions  NOT theories but PRODUCED by theories 
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Forbidden Fruit Effect o Cantor and Bushman  o Research about media ratings  o Formulated by Jack Brehm   called the psychological reactance  theory o
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COMM_203_Chapter_Notes - COMM 203 Chapter Notes A...

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