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futureinternet-11-00146-v2.pdf - future internet Tutorial...

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future internetTutorialMarine Internet for Internetworking in Oceans:A TutorialShengming JiangMarine Internet Laboratory (MILAB), College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University,Shanghai 201306, China; [email protected]Received: 17 May 2019; Accepted: 1 July 2019; Published: 5 July 2019Abstract:Ever-increasing human activities in oceans require handy, reliable and cost-effectivehigh-speed network access similar to terrestrial Internet services to be available on and under water.However, terrestrial Internet cannot be extended to oceans seamlessly due to huge differences betweenterrestrial and oceanic environments, while satellite services are still very expensive especially forordinary users with communication quality susceptible to weather conditions, and cannot coverunderwater networks either. Therefore, marine Internet, proposed about six years ago, is the earliestscheme that tries to systematically address the internetworking issue in oceans and still in its infancystage. This tutorial aims to introduce the principle, architecture and applications of marine Internet,along with discussion on oceanic environments for communication, currently available and underdeveloping communication systems in oceans, as well as challenging issues necessary for furtherstudies to foster the development of marine Internet.Keywords:Internet; marine Internet; internetworking in oceans; Internet of things in oceans andunderwater network interconnecting1. IntroductionEver-increasing human activities in oceans require handy, reliable and cost-effective high-speednetwork access not only on the water surface but also underwater. Although terrestrial Internet can beeasily accessed almost any time in populated lands via various types of terminals, this is not yet thecase in oceans mainly due to huge differences between terrestrial and marine environments. Oceansaccount for more than 71% of the Earth’s surface with 3.62×108km2and an average depth of 3682as well as a coastline of 356,000 km, containing about 1.3 billion cubic kilometers of saltwater. Thesefeatures make it extremely difficult and costly to deploy network infrastructures therein. Althoughsatellite Internet is accessible in most areas of the oceans, the services are not cost-effective due tohigh costs in construction, launching and operation of satellites [1]. Furthermore, many underwatersensors/devices have been deployed in oceans, but it is difficult for them alone to construct an Internetof Underwater Things (IoUT) [2]. This is because the current underwater wireless network can onlycover small areas at high speed due to difficulties in underwater networking [3,4] caused by thephysical limitations of underwater communication media, i.e., acoustic wave [57] and blue/greenlaser [8] (see Section3).

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