The Chemistry of Life - THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Spring 2008...

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    THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Spring 2008
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    Matter Mass Takes up space Takes different forms Made up of elements
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    Elements Living organisms are composed of about 25  chemical elements Elements are the basic chemical units that  cannot be broken apart by typical chemical  processes There are 92 naturally occurring elements 25 are required by living organisms 4 make up 96.3 of the human body
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    Elements C. Hopkins – café – with a pinch of  salt. Mg CHON (most organic matter) Trace elements
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    Why trace elements? Trace elements are common additives to  food and water Trace elements are essential in very small  quantities for proper biological functioning Example: iodine is a trace element that prevents  goiter Many foods are fortified with trace elements and  vitamins (which consist of two or more elements)
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    What are  some trace  elements  found in this  box of  cereal?
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    Compounds Elements can combine to form compounds Compounds contain two or more elements in a  fixed ratio The compound can look very different from  either element from which it is composed
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    Sodium Chlorine Sodium Chloride Table Salt – NaCl  
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    Atoms The smallest unit of an element Different arrangements of the atoms of elements determine the unique properties  of each compound
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    Electrons Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom
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    Electron Arrangement
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    Electrons and Bonds Two major types of chemical bonds  between atoms form compounds Ionic bonds Covalent bonds
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    Ionic Bonds  Attractions between ions  of opposite charge
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    What is an ion? Cation? Anion?
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    Example Since an ionic bond is an electrical  attraction between ions with opposite  charges, then table salt represents a  good example 02_07IonicBonds_A.swf
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    Transfer of electron Na Sodium atom Cl Chlorine atom
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    LE 2-7a-2 Na + Sodium ion Cl - Chloride ion Sodium chloride (NaCl)
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    Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules   through electron sharing
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    Polar-covalent Bonding   Unequal electron sharing     Polar vs. Non-Polar Polar Example: Water molecules
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    A water molecule
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    Hydrogen Bonds Weak bonds important in the chemistry of life The attraction between slightly positive regions  and slightly negative regions creates hydrogen  bonds Hydrogen bonding occurs in many biologically  important compounds Water DNA Proteins
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    LE 2-10 Hydrogen bond
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course BIOL 155 taught by Professor Stewart during the Spring '08 term at California State University Los Angeles .

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The Chemistry of Life - THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Spring 2008...

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