Chp 31 (Part1 and 2) Fill-in.pdf - I The Republican...

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I. The Republican “Old Guard” Returns Warren G. Harding, inaugurated in 1921, looked presidential: Found himself beyond his depth in presidency Unable to detect moral faults in associates Could not say no and designing politicians leeched on to this weakness Washington could not tell a lie, Harding could not tell a liar - Promised to gather around him “best minds” Charles Evans Hughes: Masterful, imperious, incisive, brilliant Brought to position of secretary of state a dominating conservative leadership Andrew W. Mellon: New secretary of Treasury Herbert Hoover: Famed feeder of Belgians and wartime food administrator Became secretary of commerce Raised his second -rate cabinet post to first-rate importance Especially in drumming up foreign trade for manufactures Harding's “worst minds”: Senator Albert B. Fall : Scheming ant conservationist Appointed secretary of interior As guardian of nation's natural resources, he resembled wolf hired to protect sheep Harry M. Daugherty: Big-time crook in “ Ohio Gang” Suppose to prosecute wrongdoers as attorney general II. GOP Reaction at the Throttle Harding a perfect “ front ” for industrialists: New Old Guards: Hoped to crush reforms of progressive era Hoped to improve on old business doctrine of laissez- faire
Wanted government to keep its hands off business Wanted government to guide business along path to profits Achieved goal by putting courts and administrative bureaus in safekeeping of fellow stand-patters Harding lived less than three years as president: Appointed four of nine justices: Fortunate choice for chief justice was ex-president Taft , who performed duties ably and was more liberal than some of his associates Supreme Court axed progressive legislation: Killed federal child -labor law Stripped away many of labor's hard-won gains Rigidly restricted government intervention in economy Landmark case Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923): Reversed its reasoning in Muller v. Oregon (see Chap. 28): » Which declared women needed special protection in workplace » To invalidate minimum-wage law for women » Reasoning: because women had vote (19 th Amendment), they were legal equal of men and could no longer be protected by special legislation Two cases framed debate over gender differences: » Were women sufficiently different from men that they merited special legal and social treatment? » Or were they effectively equal in eyes of law and undeserving of special protections and preferences? Corporations could once more relax and expand: Antitrust laws ignored, circumvented, or feebly enforced by friendly prosecutors Interstate Commerce Commission dominated by men sympathetic to managers of railroads Big industrialists strived to reduce rigors of competition through trade associations Although associations ran counter to spirit of antitrust laws, their formation encouraged by Hoover Hoover's efficiency:
Led him to condemn waste resulting from cutthroat competition

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