Lecture 14, 15, 16

Lecture 14, 15, 16 - Chem 004 - Spring 2006 Steroids...

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1 Chem 004 - Spring 2006 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu Office Hours: MW 3:10-3:55 PM, 1957 E Street, room 213, or by appointment Steroids Cholesterol Sex Hormones The Pill Pregnancy Test Steroids Function Example Regulation of secondary sexual characteristics Estradiol and testosterone Reproduction and control of the reproductive cycle Progesterone Regulation of metabolism Cortisol Digestion of fat Cholic acid Cell membrane component Cholesterol The steroid nucleus Cholesterol H O - Most of the body’s cholesterol is ______________________. - 1 gram per day__________________ to maintain the minimum concentration required (about 2 g per liter of blood) for use in cell membranes and to produce estrogen, testosterone and other steroid hormones. - The liver uses ______________________ to produce cholesterol: lauric acid (12 C’s), myristic acid (14 C’s), and palmitic acid (16 C’s). Progesterone Pregnancy hormone O CH 3 O Estradiol Female sex hormone H O O H Testosterone Male sex hormone O O H Cholesterol H O
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2 Cholesterol H O Even vegetarians can have high cholesterol. Excess of cholesterol can form waxy deposits (plaque), causing arteries to narrow, which may elevate the blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease. American Heart Association (AHA)Maximum daily intake recommended: 300 mg “Good” cholesterol and “bad” cholesterol Lipoproteins: fat-protein complexes. Transport cholesterol in blood. _____ is more likely to deposit cholesterol in blood vessels (________________). _____ can remove cholesterol from blood vessels and carry it to the liver. Food Choleste rol (mg) Food Choleste rol Fruits and veggies 0 Milk, whole (8 oz.) 33 Pork Chop (3 oz.) 83 Low-fat milk (8 oz.) 22 Chicken, skinless (3 oz.) 71 Low fat yogurt (8 oz.) 14 St eak (3 oz.) 70 Cheddar cheese (1 oz.) 30 Shrimp (3 oz.) 166 Ice cream (4 oz.) 29 Egg yolk 213 Butt er (1 t bsp.) 33 Hot d og (3 oz.) 43 - cholestyramine and colestipol combine with bile salts in the intestine so they cannot be reabsorbed and are excreted. - the liver has to use cholesterol from the blood to make more bile salts. - Dietary soluble fiber, found in oats and baked beans, combine with cholesterol in the intestine, preventing its absorption. Can lower cholesterol levels by 10%. Drawbacks: they combine also with vitamins A, D, and K, which dissolve in fat. Vitamins supplements needed. Drugs to treat cholesterol build-up H OO H O H O O H Inhibitors of cholesterol absorption: - bile salts are produced in the liver from cholesterol and secreted into the intestine to aid digestion. Some bile salts are reabsorbed from the intestine and the cholesterol is reused in the liver.
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3 Fibrates : - increase secretion of bile salts (more cholesterol is used up) - increase amount of cholesterol excreted - increase activity of lipoprotein lipase , the enzyme that destroys fatty substances in blood. Drugs to treat cholesterol build-up Statins : -inhibit enzymes which produce cholesterol - liver needs to use the cholesterol from blood N N H F O O O H O H O Ca 2+ 3H 2 O 2 Lipitor Striking Benefits Found In Ultra-Low Cholesterol Tuesday, March 9, 2004; Page A01 High doses of a popular cholesterol-lowering drug
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Lecture 14, 15, 16 - Chem 004 - Spring 2006 Steroids...

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