Exam3_StudyGuide_2011 - Introduction to Biological...

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Introduction to Biological Psychology Fall 2011 Exam 3 – Study Guide The topics below may be covered in the book but not the lectures or vice versa. You are responsible for both lectures and the book (unless otherwise noted), but material actually covered in both the lectures and the text is most relevant. The items indicating “be familiar” do not need to be known as in depth and in as much detail as the items marked “know” or “understand.” The topics below are the most important ones to know, but this is not necessarily an exhaustive list. Chapter 9: Biological Rhythms and Sleep Know about free-running rhythms and the evidence for them (e.g. cave study) Circadian rhythm that occurs when no stimuli reset or alter it (in absence of external time of day cues) -our internal workings are constantly readjusted to stay in phase with the outside world -light is critical for resetting circadian rhythms, although they can persist without light Know the definition of a zeitgeber An external cue that an animal uses to synchronize its activity with the environment. a) light is the dominant stimulus for land animals -the sun controls waking-sleeping schedules even when people follow the same clock time b)secondary stimuli: exercise, noise, meals, & environmental temperature -people who are not sensitive to these produce free-running circadian rhythms that are a little longer than 24 hrs Be familiar with the retinohypothalamic pathway A branch of the optic nerve that conveys information about light from the retina to the SCN. a) originates in retinal ganglion cells, which respond to the overall average amount of light - not to instantaneous changes in light -Ganglion cells have their own photopigment called Melanopsin -respond directly to light even if they do not receive input from rods & cones -they do however receive some input from rods & cones Know about the “clock” functioning of the SCN Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN): Main control of the circadian rhythms for sleep & body temperature. -Stimulus activates Retina SCN Pineal Gland a) Generates circadian rhythms in a genetically controlled, unlearned manner b) Direct synaptic connection with other regions where it secretes neuromodulators Regulates waking & sleeping by controlling activity in Pineal Gland (endocrine gland posterior to thalamus), which secretes Melatonin to increase sleepiness. 1
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Know the evidence for the role of the SCN in circadian rhythms 1) A single cell extracted from the SCN and raised in tissue culture continues to produce action potentials in a rhythmic pattern. 2) Damage to SCN inconsistent body rhythms, unsynchronized to environmental patterns of light/dark 3) Various body organs contain local clocks.
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  • Spring '14
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  • Circadian Rhythms, vagus nerve, REM sleep behavior, sleep behavior disorder

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