40 and 41

40 and 41 - Test Four Study Guide Concept 40.1: Physical...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Test Four Study Guide Concept 40.1: Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape Physical laws, especially the physics of exchanging materials with the environment, limit the range of animal forms Evolutionary Convergence Different species’ independent adaptation to a similar environmental challenge (based on hydrodynamic needs to move quickly) E.g. fusiform shape in fast-swimming aquatic animals (fusiform – tapered on both ends) Exchange with the Environment An animal’s size and shape effects how it exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings Exchange with the environment occurs as substances are transported across the plasma membranes of cells By diffusion or active transport Exchange in Simple Organisms Single-celled organisms Exchange material by diffusion Entire plasma membrane is exposed to the medium (surrounding environment) Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan Body wall is only 2 cell-layers thick Exchange is by diffusion Exchange in complex Animals – Figure 40.4 Large, complex animals have highly folded or branched internal surfaces specialized for exchanging materials This increases surface areas Concept 40.2: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels or organization Cell: Animals fundamental unit of structure and function Tissues : groups of cells with a common structure and function
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Organs : specialized center of body function; composed of several different types of body tissues Organ System : a group of organs working together in performing vital body functions Tissue Structure and Function 4 main categories of tissues Epithelial Connective – bind different tissues together Muscle – Nervous – receive and send signals throughout the body Epithelial – Fig. 40.5 Covers the outside of the body and lines the organs within the body Cells are closely joined Line trachea, digestive system, surfaces that tend to get abraded a lot (skin), capillaries Connective tissue Functions mainly to bind and support other tissues Composed of sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix Major types Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue Fibrous connective tissue Cartilage Bone Blood Muscle Tissue - Fig. 40.4 Composed of long cells celled muscle fibers capable of contracting in response to nerve signals 3 types: Skeletal – voluntary control Cardiac – involuntary control Smooth – involuntary control (digestive tract, etc) Nervous Tissue – Fig. 40.5 Sense stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
Background image of page 2
Nerve cell responsible for receiving and transmitting is the neuron Organs – Fig. 40.6 In all but the simplest animals different tissues are organized into organs Ex: stomach – epithelial, connective, and smooth tissue Organ Systems Organ systems carry out the major body functions of most animals Table 40.1: Main components and functions of organ systems in mammals
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 9

40 and 41 - Test Four Study Guide Concept 40.1: Physical...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online