Critical Race Theory (Autosaved).edited.edited.docx - 1 THE...

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1 THE APPLICATION OF THE CRITICAL RACE THEORY AS IT RELATES TO THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS AT PREDOMINANTLY WHITE INSTITUTIONS
2 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................................... 2 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 2 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................. 3 Purpose of the Study .................................................................................................................... 9 Research Questions .................................................................................................................... 10 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................... 10 Overview of the Methodology ................................................................................................... 13 Limitations ................................................................................................................................. 13 Definition of Key Terms ............................................................................................................ 14 Organization of the Document ................................................................................................... 16 CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................................. 17 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..................................................................................................... 17 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 18 Defining Racism .................................................................................................................... 21 School belonging as a protective factor ................................................................................. 21 Systemic Racism in America Education System ................................................................... 23 Critical Race Theory, Racism and Underperformance .......................................................... 25 Systemic Racism .................................................................................................................... 29 Psychology and Racism ......................................................................................................... 32 Theoretical Framework .............................................................................................................. 34 The Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems (PVEST) ......................................... 34 Critical Race Theory Framework .......................................................................................... 35 CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................................. 39 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 39 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 39 Rationale for Methodology ........................................................................................................ 41 Assumption and Biases .............................................................................................................. 42 Site Selection ............................................................................................................................. 42 Sample selection ........................................................................................................................ 43
3 Data Collection Procedure ......................................................................................................... 43 Ethical Considerations ............................................................................................................... 44 Data Analysis Procedure ............................................................................................................ 45 Trustworthiness .......................................................................................................................... 46 References ...................................................................................................................................... 48
4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Racism is a pervasive component that dominated history and continues to dominate the current society. Various scholars have defined racism as systems of cultural, institutional, and personal values, beliefs, and actions where people or groups are put at a disadvantage due to their ethnic backgrounds or racial profiles (Tourse et al., 2018). It involves assigning advantages and privileges to members who subscribe to a particular race or ethnicity (Clayton, 2020). The persistence of racism has continued to problematically deny many individuals many of their constitutional freedoms, rights, and privileges. In combating racism, it is essential to draw attention to and address the concerns of the individuals affected by it, those who perpetrate it, and those that are likely not affected by racial prejudice. In addition to this, it is essential to confront the beliefs and practices that foster racial prejudice or have contributed to its persistence. Challenging such practices is an essential strategy in liberating the society incredibly prejudiced from systematic Racism (Bradley, 2019). Every student is entitled to receive education and attain the highest possible level with equal and fair treatment. The African American student has been affected by the highest attrition levels in colleges due to racial prejudice. Despite claims that the current society is post-racial and color blind, this student demographic has been victims of racism and racial microaggression in colleges for the longest time. This has affected the performance of such students and hindered them in achieving their full potential in academia (DeCuir-Gunby, 2009). Critical Race Theory (CRT) is among the leading theoretical constructs linked racial prejudice and educational inadequacies to the social and academic injustices against African American and minority students in predominantly white institutions. Critical Race Theory can be defined as the progressive work of legal scholars of color to expand jurisprudence accounting for

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