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Unformatted text preview: General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 Neuropsychology (Neuroscience & Behavior) 0. Biological Psychology (Biopsychology) 0. The scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes 1. Biopsychology makes important contributions to . . . 1. Neuroscience: the scientific study of the nervous system 2. Nervous system: the body's primary communication network The Neuron and Communication in the Nervous System What types of specialized cells are in your nervous system? Neurons Highly specialized cells that communicate information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell Glial cells These are support cells. Assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes Types of Neurons
Sensory Neurons INPUT From sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord Motor Neurons OUTPUT From the brain and spinal cord, to the muscles and glands Interneurons Interneurons carry information between other neurons Most of the neurons in your NS are interneurons Characteristics of a Neuron: Dendrites 6. Information collectors 7. Receive inputs from neighboring neurons 8. Inputs may number in thousands Dendritic Growth 9. new dendrites can grow 10. Provides room for more connections to other neurons
1 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 11. New connections are basis for learning Axon 3. The cell's output structure 4. One axon per cell Myelin Sheath 12. White fatty casing on axon 13. Acts as an electrical insulator 14. Not present on all cells 15. When present, increases the speed of neural signals down the axon How Neurons Communicate
Communication within a neuron: 3. Neurons communicate by electrical signal called the Action Potential (100 billion) 4. Action Potentials are based on movements of ions between the outside and inside of the cell Neuron to Neuron Communication: 2. Axons branch out and end near dendrites of neighboring cells 3. Axon terminals are the tips of the axon's branches 4. A gap separates the axon terminals from dendrites 5. Gap is the Synapse 5. Axon terminals contain small storage sacs called synaptic vesicles Neurotransmitter Release 6. Action Potential causes vesicle to open Locks and Keys 6. Neurotransmitter molecules have specific shapes
Receptor molecules have binding sites When NT binds to receptor, ions enter Some Drugs Work on Receptors 16. Some drugs are shaped like neurotransmitters 17. Antagonists: fit the receptor but poorly and block the NT 7. e.g., beta blockers Agonists: fit receptor well and act like the NT e.g., nicotine 2 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 What happens to neurotransmitter molecules after they've attached to the receptor? Reuptake Enzymes Important Neurotransmitters 18. Acetylcholine 19. Dopamine 20. Serotonin 21. Norepinephrine 22. GABA (GammaAminobutyric Acid ) 23. Endorphins Match these functions to NT above: 10. Learning, memory, muscle contractions 11. movement, thought processes 12. Emotional states; sleep 13. Physical arousal, learning, memory 14. Inhibition of brain activity 15. Pain perception; positive emotions Acetylcholine 0. Found in neuromuscular junction 1. Involved in muscle movements Disruption of Acetylcholine Functioning 5. Curare--blocks ACh receptors 24. This causes paralysis 6. Nerve gases and Black Widow spider venom; too much ACh leads to severe muscle spasms and possible death Disruptions in ACh Functioning 2. Cigarettes--nicotine works on ACh receptors 9. can artificially stimulate skeletal muscles, leading to slight trembling movements 3 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 Alzheimer's Disease 7. Deterioration of memory, reasoning, and language skills 8. Symptoms may be due to loss of ACh neurons Serotonin 3. Involved in sleep 4. Involved in depression 10. Prozac works by keeping serotonin in the synapse longer, giving it more time to exert an effect Norepinephrine 0. Arousal 1. "Fight or flight" response Dopamine 5. Involved in movement, attention and learning 6. Dopamine imbalance also involved in schizophrenia 7. Loss of dopamine-producing neurons is cause of Parkinson's disease Parkinson's Disease 25. Results from loss of dopamine-producing neurons 26. Symptoms include 16. difficulty starting and stopping voluntary movements 17. tremors at rest 18. stooped posture 19. rigidity 20. poor balance 11. Treatments 27. L-dopa 28. electrical stimulation of the thalamus has been used to stop tremors Endorphins 12. Control pain and pleasure 13. Released in response to pain 14. Morphine and codeine work on endorphin receptors 9. Runner's high-- feeling of pleasure after a long run is due to heavy endorphin release
4 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) 8. Main inhibitory neurotransmitter 9. Benzodiazepines (which include tranquilizers such as Valium) and alcohol work on GABA receptor complexes Parts of the Nervous System 29. Central Nervous System (CNS) 21. Brain (the command center) and spinal cord (a busy telephone switchboard); entirely protected by bone b/c it's so important 22. Cerbrospinal fluid to protect from being jarred 30. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS); "lying at the outer edges" 23. Includes all the nerves outside of the CNS that extend to the outermost parts of your body (skin) 24. Carries messages to and from CNS PNS 15. Somatic NS: "soma" means body 31. Controls voluntary actions 16. Autonomic NS: "self-governing" 32. Regulates involuntary functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, digestions 33. Sympathetic and parasympathetic subdivisions Fight or flight? 17. Sympathetic nervous system 34. Emergency system; physically prepares you to fight or flee from danger. 18. Parasympathetic 35. Conserves and maintains physical resources.; calms you down The Endocrine System o Governs your metabolism, growth rate, blood pressure, sexual development and reproduction; emotional responses, your response to stress o Made up of glands that are located throughout the body; to communicate, these glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream 36. Hormones run through the blood until they reach a receptor that is attracted to them--these receptors are on the surface of organs or tissues. 37. NOT part of the nervous system, but interacts with it in important ways Hypothalamus
5 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 38. The main link between the ES and the NS 39. Brain structure which regulates the signals that trigger secretion of hormones; directly controls the pituitary gland (a pea-sized gland just under the brain; it's considered the "master gland" b/c it further regulates the production of other hormones by the other glands in the ES) 25. Pituitary also produces the growth hormone, prolactin, and oxytocin Studying What the Brain Does IMPORTANT TERMS 19. Localization of function (LOF) idea that certain parts of the brain are somewhat specialized to serve certain functions i.e. frontal lobe specialized for movement Somewhat specialized? 20. Not all or none--distributed processing 40. Even though frontal lobe is specialized for movement, this function results from activity in other sites as well. How do we get evidence for LOF? 21. Localization of function studied via 41. Brain injury or disorder 26. The earliest method of neuropsychological observation in humans. 42. Electrical stimulation 43. Brain imaging techniques 22.LOF demonstrated by the case of the 1st person to survive extreme brain damage...... Poor Phineas Gage What effect did his accident have on him? 23. He could walk, talk, & recognize his surroundings 24. However, he experienced changes in personality and mood and some aspects of thinking--
6 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 Described as an antisocial, foul-mouthed, liar 26. Died in 1861, thirteen years after accident 27. No autopsy performed on his brain after he died. 28. His doctor, John Harlow, associated part of brain with mental and emotional functions. Not taken very seriously Damasio et al. (1994). The return of Phineas Gage. Science, 264 (5162), 110205. 29. Lateralization idea that even the left and right hemispheres are specialized to do certain things 44. Right half of brain controls left half of body and vice versa 45. Perception also works this way. 27. Sight and hearing. One difference b/t the hemispheres 30. Production and comprehension of written and spoken language 46. Mainly the responsibility of which hemisphere? 28. Notice,... I say mainly.... 31. Spatial tasks 47. Mainly the responsibility of? Split-Brain 48. A phenomena which can show hemispheric specialization 49. Corpus callosum--thick bundle of fibers which connects the left and right sides of the brain. 50. To treat seizures, doctors have cut these fibers, thereby disconnecting the two hemispheres 51. An interesting disorder results as seizures decrease in frequency Split-brain patients & visual pathways 52. Present word "spoon" to right visual field 53. Can they tell us what the word says? 54. Why? 55. Present word "spoon" to left visual field
7 25. General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 56. Can they tell us what the word says? 57. Why? Brain imaging techniques 29. PET an invasive technique: provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of a radioactively tagged compound such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug. (takes several minutes 30. MRI: noninvasive: produces highly detailed images using electromagnetic signals generated by brain in response to magnetic fields. 31. fMRI: noninvasive: uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels (takes several seconds). A tour of the brain... The Brain Hindbrain 32. At base of brain 33. Connects brain to spinal chord 34. Includes 58. Cerebellum 59. Medulla 60. Pons 61. Reticular formation Cerebellum 62. Coordinated, rapid voluntary movements 32. e.g., playing the piano, kicking, throwing, etc. 63. Posture 64. Lesions to cerebellum lead to 33. jerky, exaggerated movements 34. difficulty walking 35. loss of balance 36. shaking hands Medulla 65. Breathing 66. Heart rate 67. Digestion 68. Other vital reflexes 37. swallowing
8 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 38. coughing 39. vomiting 40. sneezing Reticular Formation 35. Network of neurons in the brainstem which helps to regulate.... 69. Sleep and arousal 70. Attention Pons 71. Helps coordinate movements on left and right sides of the body 41. e.g., postural reflexes which help you maintain balance while standing or moving Forebrain Structures 36. Cortex 37. Limbic System Cerebral Cortex: outer portion of brain ......4 lobes and their functions 72. Frontal --movement 42. Primary motor cortex found here 73. Parietal processing bodily info such as touch, temp., pressure, and info from muscles and joints 43. Somatosensory cortex found here 74. Temporal --hearing 75. Occipital --seeing Sensations and Movement (see diagram in textbook) The Limbic System 38. Hippocampus 39. Thalamus 40. Hypothalamus 41. Amygdala Hippocampus Embedded in the temporal lobe in each hemisphere New memories of events and information 9 General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 2 Thalamus Greek for "inner chamber" Relay station in brain Processes most motor and sensory information to and from higher brain centers Also thought to be involved in regulating awareness, attention, motivation, and emotional aspects of sensations Hypothalamus 44. Contains nuclei involved in a variety of behaviors 44. sexual behavior 45. hunger, thirst 46. sleep 47. water and salt balance 48. body temperature regulation 49. circadian rhythms 50. role in hormone secretion Amygdala and Emotion 80. Identify emotion from facial expressions
Also plays a role in storing memories with an emotional tie. 10 ...
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