Topic 1--Foundations S07 - 2010 General Psychology Topic 1:...

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2010 General Psychology Dr. LeVasseur Introducing Psychology Psychology What is psychology? 0. Today, it is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. 0. behavior—observable actions of a person or animal 1. mental processes—thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives, etc. 1. This definition has evolved over time. The Influence of Philosophy 0. Earliest origins of psychology: 0. Aristotle wrote about sleep, dreams, the senses, and memory. 1. Descartes’ interactive dualism—the idea that mind and body were separate entities. 1. Nature versus Nurture debate 2. A big question: Which was more important? 3. The inborn nature of the individual (heredity) or the environmental influences that nurture the individual (environment). The influence of physiology. 2. Physiology: a branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms, including humans. 3. The early discoveries of physiologists would lead to the idea that scientific methods could be applied to issues of human behavior and thinking. Who was the founder of psychology as an experimental science? 4. Answer: Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) 2. A German physiologist who used scientific methods to study fundamental psychological processes. 0. i.e. Tried to test how long it took a person to consciously detect the sight and sound of a bell being struck 3. 1879: he established the first psychological research laboratory 1. This marks the formal beginning of psychology as an experimental science!!
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2010 General Psychology Dr. LeVasseur Who developed the first major school of thought in psychology? 5. Edward Titchener (1867-1927) 6. It was called Structuralism 4. Emphasized studying the most basic components (or structures) of conscious experience. 2. These structures are sensations and feelings. 7. Procedure of “introspection” William James (1842-1910) 8. Established and promoted the study of psychology in the US after reading some of Wundt’s papers. 9. Wrote a text book which quickly became the leading textbook of psychology. 10.Inventor of functionalism FUNCTIONALISM 2. Stressed the importance of how behavior and mental processes function to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments 3. Like structuralists, functionalists felt that psychology should focus on the study of conscious experience, but they disagreed on the nature of consciousness and how it should be studied. Turn of the century and women in psychology 4. Two students of James’ and functionalism 4. Mary Whiton Calkins 0. taught psychology at a new women’s college—Wellesley 1. Harvard refused to grant her a Ph.D.
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Topic 1--Foundations S07 - 2010 General Psychology Topic 1:...

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