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Topic 6--Thinking, Language, Intelligence

Topic 6--Thinking, Language, Intelligence - General...

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General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 6 Thinking, Language, & Intelligence Thinking, Language, & Intelligence Part 1: Thinking Part 1: Thinking Cognition 0. A general term that refers to the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge. 1. Cognitive processes are critical in our acquiring and retaining new knowledge 0. Perception 1. Learning 2. Memory 2. How do we use this knowledge? 3. To analyze situations, solve problems, make decisions, and use language—all cognitive processes which make up intelligence. Thinking 0. Is involved in all conscious mental activity 1. Involves manipulating mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions. 2. Thinking often involves two forms of mental representations 0. Mental images 1. Concepts Mental image 3. A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present; they stand in for objects or events and have a picture-like quality 4. Not only visual—but visual mental images are the most widely studied. 5. Do people manipulate a mental image in the same way they manipulate a visual one? 6. Kosslyn (1978) found that we tend to scan a mental image in much the same way that we visually scan an actual image. Q) Images are not the only ways in which we think are they? Q) Images are not the only ways in which we think are they? 3. A) Concepts are also involved in thinking. 4. Mental category we have formed to group objects, events, or situations that share similar features or characteristics. 5. Concepts make it easier to communicate with others. 2. We use concepts to think about objects or events without having to think about all the specific examples of the category. 0. You can think about “fruit” without thinking about every kind of fruit there is in the world. 6. Concepts have very strict definitions 1
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General Psychology, Dr. LeVasseur Topic 6 3. Ex) A square is a shape with four equal sides. 4. Formal concept—mental category formed by learning rules 1. follows rigid rules (A polygon is…; a substance is either a solid, liquid, or gas.) But what about things that don But what about things that don’ t easily fit the rules or features? 7. Some objects, events, activities are not as clearly defined as the concepts of science and math. 8. What is a vehicle? 9. Cars and trucks leap to mind but what about a bobsled, a raft? 4. Natural concept—mental category formed by everyday experience with these concepts in the real world rather than learning a set of rules 0. Have fuzzy boundaries. 1. What are examples of a vehicle? Easy to classify 0. Car, truck, bus Difficult to classify (fit some of the rules for vehicle) 1. Sled, wheelbarrow, raft, elevator 7. Is a platypus a mammal or a bird? Hmmm Hmmm… 10. Everyone’s experiences aren’t going to be the same right? So how do people develop those basic concepts if they are all having different experiences???
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Topic 6--Thinking, Language, Intelligence - General...

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