Lecture 3 - The Pennsylvania State University Department of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Pennsylvania State University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering CE 321: Highway Engineering Lecture 3: Highway Users Fall 2007 Highway Users Motor vehicles Bicyclists Pedestrians Novice Older Articulated Transit Bus Photo credit: Tri-County Metropolitan Transit District of Oregon Tractor Semi-Trailer Photo Credit: Wabash National Tractor Double Trailer Photo Credit: Huttunen Transport Characteristics of Vehicles Age Body dimensions Length Width Height Undercarriage Wheelbase Track Characteristics of Vehicles Weight Gross vehicle weight Axle load Wheel load Tire pressure Turning Characteristics Turning radius Wheel paths Body path Passenger Car Turning Path Source: A Policy on Geometric Design of Highway and Streets (AASHTO, 2001) Tractor Semi-trailer Turning Path Source: A Policy on Geometric Design of Highway and Streets (AASHTO, 2001) Characteristics of Vehicles Carrying capacity Seats Number Configuration Standees Cargo type Weight Volume Characteristics of Vehicles Performance Acceleration Deceleration Maximum speed Aerodynamic resistance/drag Rolling resistance Weight to horsepower ratio Fuel consumption Acceleration Characteristics Deceleration Characteristics Speed-Distance Curves for Typical Heavy Truck on Upgrades Bicyclists Promoting Bicycling SAFETEA-LU continues the integration of bicycling into the transportation mainstream Legislation provides the funding, planning, and policy tools necessary to create bicycle-friendly communities Important Issues Bicycles play an increasingly important role in overall transportation system The need for safe, convenient, and attractive facilities to encourage safe biking is essential Bicyclists feel squeezed out of traffic mix Bicyclists complain of high stress level Bicyclists' Preferences Bicyclists typically prefer to use streets with Low traffic volumes Low vehicle speeds Wide travel lanes Smooth pavement surface Direct route Safety Facts on Bicyclists Famous first fact 1st automobile crash in the US occurred in New York City in 1896, when a motor vehicle collided with a person on a bicycle. Highest number of bicycle related fatalities recorded in Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) 1,003 (1975) Non-Occupant Traffic Fatalities (1996 2003) Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Pedestrians 5,449 5,321 5,228 4,939 4,763 4,901 4,851 4,749 Pedalcyclists 765 814 760 754 693 732 665 622 Total 6,214 6,135 5,988 5,693 5,456 5,633 5,516 5,371 Bicycle Lane Bicycle Lane Wide Curb Lane Pedestrians Walking Speeds Average adults move at 4.5 feet/sec. Engineers assume 4.0 feet/sec. for design. Pedestrian accidents occur when crossing road and conflicting with traffic. Gap acceptance depends on walking speed, perception of oncoming traffic, level of attention, and training. Pedestrian Crash Factors Pedestrian Crash Factors Pedestrians most at risk 5 to 9 year old males (dart out into street) Older adults more vulnerable to serious injuries Alcohol impairment Nearly 25% of pedestrians involved in fatal accidents are intoxicated (BAC>0.10). Speeding Contributing factor in 30% of all fatal crashes Pedestrian Crash Factors (cont) Times of occurrence Crashes most prevalent during morning and afternoon peak periods Fatal accidents typically occur between 511pm Area type Crashes occur most frequently in urban areas Pedestrian Crash Factors (cont): Location Type Actions Crossing at Intersection Crossing b/w Intersections Walking with traffic Walking against traffic Other 20.1 42.1 5.5 2.8 29.5 Percent of Deaths and Injuries All Ages Under 5 12.8 55.5 1.1 1.2 29.4 59 15.3 57.0 1.5 1.7 24.6 65 + 34.3 33.2 3.3 3.8 25.4 Pedestrian Treatment Pedestrian Treatment Pedestrian Treatment Summary Vehicle types and performance characteristics vary. Pedestrian and bicyclist characteristics vary. Safety concerns in urban areas. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course C E 321 taught by Professor Pietrucha,martinkeller,michaelwi during the Spring '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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