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Study_Guide_3%5b1%5d - Study Guide Exam 3 Anthro 143...

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Study Guide Exam 3 Anthro 143 Definitions: Sylvian fissure Sulcus - groove Gyrus - ridge pre-central gyrus brain asymmetry - most functions are share by both hemispheres - certain functions are more lateralized (= asymmetrical) - allows efficient processing of information Wernicke’s aphasia - language disorder - fluent speech marked by absence content info, together w/ presence of grammar words and inflections - similar situation in nonhuman primates o rhesus monkeys - damage impairs ability to distinguish sounds and determines sound sequence or speech - understand species calls Wernicke’s area - temporal/ parietal lobe - usually left side - rec of language Broca’s area - control of speech production - not simply control of vocal cords and tongues: they can controlled by both - more efficient to have 1 hemisphere - control complex tasks corpus callosum - communication path between hemispheres - cut in some epilepsy patients brain modularity - different brain areas perform different mental function - disconnection of areas prevents normal integrated mind function o eg. Alexia without agraphia: cannot read but can write write due to visual area separation from language area o look at an object analyze color, motion and depth perception separately but over all integrate whole theory of mind – the capacity to be aware of the thoughts, knowledge, or perceptions of other individuals. A theory of mind may be a perquisite for deception, imitation, teaching, and empathy. It is generally thought that humans, and possibly chimps, are the only primates to possess a theory of mind communication - “info exchange between sender and receiver” Language - a set of rules for generating speech - a learned system of communication that relies of arbitrary sounds and symbols understood and shared by a group culture
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- many definitions - pattern of knowledge, belief, behavior and material traits - learned and transmitted to succeeding generations - varies across racial, religious, or social groups memes – A term coined by Richard Dawkins to refer to a unit of cultural info (belief or value) transmitted by imitation and teaching aphasia Scientists & Famous Names: Lorenz - Endogenous Drive (Hydraulic) o Time- aggressive motivation o Hypothesis – aggressive motivation builds up over time Aggression discharges motivation o Aggression never completely controllable o Aggressive drive needs to be spent harmlessly o Discharge through sports etc. o Problems Aggreesiveness increases during a fight Aggressiveness does not normally increase spontaneously Adapted to context eg. Infanticide Release of aggression does not reduce aggression Catharsis theory (freud) o Hit punch- bag Experiments o Hit punch bag – more anger Hobbes, Rosseau - Hobbes o Humans are entirely selfish o Social order requires presence of authority - Rosseau o Noble savage o At base, people are peaceful, uncomplicated o Gentle self- serving o Modern civilization (property ownership, marriage, religious authority brought conflict and strife) -
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