Study+Guide[1]

Study+Guide[1] - Study Guide This study guide is a...

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Study Guide This study guide is a compilation of terms and concepts that will be featured prominently on the test. This is meant to help you study, but it does not necessarily contain all the concepts that you will be tested on. Please review all of your notes in addition to focusing on these major concepts and terms. Some Terms to Know: Phylogeny – The evolutionary history of a group (ancestral – descendent relationship - Species with more recent common evolutionary history are placed in the same group or lineage distinct from other species belonging to other groups or lineages - Some individuals that share the same traits as A and some that share more with E T1 A T2 B E T3 C D F G stereoscopic vision – A primate trait - means that each eye sends a signal of the visual image to both hemispheres in the brain to create an image with depth - not uniform in all primates olfactory – a primate trait - the sense of smell - reduction in muzue - smelling becomes 2 nd toothcomb – tapetum lucidum – antropoids loss them - reflective eye shield (makes eyes glow in dark) mosaic evolution - ? infanticide – the killing of infants affiliative socioecology - the study of how natural selection shapes social organization in response to ecologoical pressures polyandry – when 2 or more males simultaneously form pair – bonds with a single female - extremely ucommon among mammalian species monogamy – having one partner throughout life natural selection – the process that produces adaptation - based on three postulates o the availability of resources is limited o organisms vary in the ability to survive and reproduce
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o traits that influence survival and reproduction are transmitted from parents to offspring - when these 3 postulates hold, natural selection produces adaptation gene flow – the movement of genes from one population to another, or from one part of a population to another, as the result of interbreeding genetic drift – random change in gene frequencies due to sampling variation that occurs in any finite population - more rapid in small populations than in large populations migration mutation – a spontaneous change in the chemical structure of DNA fitness – the more fit individual in the population are those individuals who are more prolific parents (contribute disportionally more genes into the next generation adaptation – a feature of an organism created by the process of natural selection - rules are needed for deciding what counts as an adaptation - recognizing adaptation o reliability: predictable occurance not necessarily universal! Ex: sex differences o Economy : cost effective Not necessarily cheap Ex: begging o Efficiency: well designed to achieve goal Not necessarily optimal Ex: baby’s cries can be ignored o Logic: better than any alternative explanation Not explicable as incidental effect Ex: floppy ears - Why are adaptations not necessarily optimal? o
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Study+Guide[1] - Study Guide This study guide is a...

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