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Unformatted text preview: SALA Building GREEN DESIGN: PURPOSE Increase efficiency of buildings' use of energy, water, and materials Reduce impact on human health and environment Whole-Building Philosophy GREEN DESIGN: PURPOSE Triple Bottom Line Environmental Stewardship Protect and Conserve Resources Improve Quality of Life Reduce Costs, Add Value, Create Economic Opportunity Social Responsibility Economic Prosperity SUSTAINABILITY Sustainable design represents a revolution in how we think about, design, construct, and operate buildings. Primary goal: produce buildings that take
less from the earth while giving more to people SUSTAINABILITY Ensure that development strategies used today will benefit future generations Enhance human needs with environmental considerations GREEN HISTORY 1851 Crystal Palace, London 1877 Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Milan GREEN HISTORY America's First Green Building New York, 1903 Green design: deep-set windows GREENING OF THE WHITE HOUSE "The White House has been described as the house of the people. In that sense, this work is not just about the White House, it is about your house." Plan announced April 21, 1993 "We're going to identify what it takes to make the White House a model for efficiency and waste reduction, and then we're going to get the job done."
President Bill Clinton GREEN HERE AND ABROAD Environmental Assessment Began in UK BREEAM Introduced in 1990 Used for Both Old and New Buildings Product Labeling Began in Germany Blue Angel Introduced in 1977 Introduced in 1999 World Green Building Council CURRENT GREEN DESIGN Growth Blocked By: Lack of Education in the Green Design Skepticism Green Design Adds to Design Costs Slow Return Rate for Benefits Market is Not Interested in Green Design Field is Too Complicated GREEN ADDS TO COSTS? Initial Costs are Higher for Green Projects Can be Decreased by: Early, Careful Planning Selecting a Experienced Team Tax breaks SLOW RATE OF RETURN? Green Buildings Save Significantly on Energy Costs Also Save by Reusing and Recycling Materials Rate of Return Dependent on Level of Energy Efficiency MARKET NOT INTERESTED? Start-Up Challenges Cause Hesitation $15 BILLION worth of Green Buildings In Design/Construction Phase in U.S. U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is One of Most Successful Nonprofit Organizations FIELD TO COMPLICATED? Presents New Design Challenges LEED Can Act as Guide in Design Process What is LEED? LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) A rating system for new commercial construction, major renovations, and high rise residential buildings. There are separate categories which involve such areas as the site, materials, energy, etc. Each category is divided into individual credits. Projects earn one or more points toward certification by meeting or exceeding each credits technical requirements. Points add up to a final score that relates to one of four possible levels of certification. Why Was LEED Started ? Facilitate positive results for the environment, occupant health and financial return Define "green" by providing a standard for measurement Prevent "greenwashing" (false or exaggerated claims) Promote whole-building, integrated design processes Why was LEED started, (cont..) Use as a design guideline Recognize leaders Stimulate green competition Raise consumer awareness Transform the marketplace! Establish market value with recognizable national "brand" Technical Overview Started by the USGBC (United States Green Building Council) in 1995 Uses existing, proven technologies Evaluates and recognizes performance in accepted green design categories LEED 3.0 product development includes existing buildings, multiple buildings, core & shell, interiors, and residential Technical Overview (cont..) Whole-building approach encourages and guides a collaborative, integrated design and construction process Optimizes environmental and economic factors Four levels of certification LEED Certified 26 - 32 points Silver Level 33 - 38 points Gold Level 39 - 51 points Platinum Level 52+ points (69 possible) Certification Categories Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy and Atmosphere Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation and Design Process Sustainable Sites Prerequisite 1: Erosion & Sedimentation Control Credit 1: Site Selection Credit 2: Development Density Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment Credit 4: Alternative Transportation Credit 5: Reduced Site Disturbance Credit 6: Storm water Management Credit 7: Heat Island Effect Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction Water Efficiency Credit 1: Credit 2: Credit 3: Water Efficient Landscaping Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite 1: Fund. Bldg. Systems Commissioning Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance Prerequisite 3: CFC Reduction in HVAC&R Equipment Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance Credit 2: Renewable Energy Credit 3: Additional Commissioning Credit 4: Ozone Depletion Credit 5: Measurement and Verification Credit 6: Green Power Materials and Resources Prerequisite 1: Storage and Collection of Recyclables Credit 1: Building Reuse Credit 2: Construction Waste Management Credit 3: Resource Reuse Credit 4: Recycling Content Credit 5: Local/Regional Materials Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials Credit 7: Certified Wood Indoor Environmental Quality Prerequisite 1: Minimum IAQ Performance Prerequisite 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Credit 1: Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Credit 2: Ventilation Effectiveness Credit 3: Construction IAQ Management Plan Credit 4: Low-Emitting Materials Credit 5: Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control Innovation & Design Process
Credit 1: Credit 2: Innovation in Design LEED Accredited Professional Most credits worth 1 pt., while a few have a range (i.e. from 110 pts.) based on different percentages at which that credit is met. LEED points distribution
Indoor Env i r onm ent al Qual i t y 23% Mat er i al s & Res our c es 20% Ener gy & A t m os pher e 27% Wat er Effi c i enc y 8% Sus t ai nabl e Si t es 22% 5 different categories + Innovation & design (small percent) Certification Process
A three step process : Step 1: Project Registration Welcome Packet and on-line project listing Receive Orientation Materials Reference Package Credit Rulings
(Use these to determine what each credit entails, and which credits are met by project) Step 2: Technical Support Step 3: Building Certification Upon documentation submittal and USGBC review (administrative, preliminary technical, and final technical reviews). 6 week several month process Certification Fees
Less Than 75,000 sq. ft. 75,000-300,000 sq. ft. More than 300,000 sq. ft. Registration
Members Non-Members $750.00 $950.00 $.01 per. sq.ft. $.0125 per. sq.ft. $3000.00 $3750.00 Certification
Members Non-Members $1500.00 $1875.00 $.02 per. sq.ft. $.025 per sq.ft. $6000.00 $7500.00 Other Costs: Ref book: $250.00 (USGBC members), $400.00 (non-members) Accredited Professional Individuals may become LEED Accredited Professionals by passing the LEED Accreditation exam. The exam tests an individual's understanding of green building practices and principles, and familiarity with LEED requirements. The accreditation program recognizes expertise in green building and LEED to help meet the growing demand for green buildings. Cost of the exam is $250 (members) and $350 (non-members). Successful Examiners earn: Recognition as a LEED Accredited Professional on the USGBC web site. One point toward LEED Certification of their green building projects. LEED Accredited Professional Certificate. LEED MARKET TRANSFORMATION
(LEED' s affect on the market) 77 Certified Projects* 1017 Registered Projects* as of 8/11/03 LEED MARKET TRANSFORMATION LEED Registered projects by state (top ten) 25000000 20000000 Gross Square Feet 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 141 CA 66 52 45 41 40 MA 35 TX 30 MI 26 24 PA WA OR NY MD GA State and Number of Projects LEED Market Transformation
-Registered projects by building type Other 3% Assembly 2% Recreation 1% Multi-Use 20% Commercial Office 18% Multi-Unit Residential 3% Industrial (manufacturing, warehouse, pub. works) 4% Interpretive Center (museum, visitor center, zoo) 5% K-12 Education 6% Higher Education 10% LEED Market Transformation
-Registered projects by owner type Federal Government 10% State Government 12% Other 6% Individual 1% Profit Corporation 29% Nonprofit Corporation 18% Local Government 24% Penn State School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
LEED Requirements Achieved and Requirements that can be Achieved with Some Additional Effort LEED Requirements Having discussed the areas of requirements two were looked at for the SALA Building Site Structure Site Requirements Erosion and Sediment Control is a requirement for all Green Buildings that must be met to be considered for LEED certification and no credit toward the level of certification. The SALA Building has an approved E & S Control plan and meets this requirement. Site Requirements Site Selection gains a point for use of land that is not prime farmland, lower than 5ft about the 100 yr flood plane, habitat for threatened or endangered species, was public park land prior to acquirement, or 100 ft from wetlands. SALA Building meets these requirements. Site Requirements Development Density Requirement is met. Brownfield Requirement is not met however this site is not in an area considered to be an environmental contamination possibility considering the development of the land is not changing that much from its past uses and that of surrounding areas. Site Requirements The SALA Building meets the first two Alternative Transportation requirements by: Having at least two bus stops with in quarter a mile of the building site. The SALA Building meets the 2nd Alternative Transportation requirement by having bicycle racks and a shower facility. Site Requirements The SALA Building does not meet the third alternative transportation requirement because: Alternative fuel vehicles are not provided for any percentage of the buildings occupants. At least 5% of the occupants need alternative transportation provided for them. Penn State may wish to consider seeking an amendment with the large percentage of occupants using the alternative fuel buses. Site Requirements The receiving of the fourth alternative transportation requirement will need to be determined after the contract for the parking lot issued. No contract currently issued so plans can not be considered final. Preferred parking for carpools for 5% of the occupants must be provied. Most employees using provided lot will be one occupant per vehicle. No student parking is being provided. Site Requirements The open space restoration requirement is not met and this is not a green space. Had impervious pavement for tennis courts, basketball courts and tennis courts and had an existing building. Will not be restoring 50% of the area with vegetation Site Requirements The second open space requirement is met by having at least an equal area of open space as the area of the building foot print. The site also meets local open space requirements. The two storm water requirement can not be determined until the building is complete and runoff is measured. Site Requirements The first heat island credit can be met once the parking lot pavement is chosen and if it is chosen to be an open grid system. This parking lot must have the open grid system to be equal to 30% of all paved areas including parking lots, sidewalks, and plazas. Site Requirements The use of a highly reflective ENERGY STAR and high emissivity roofing is used gaining credit for the second part of the heat island requirement The light pollution requirement needs to be verified based on the output of light from the building and the output of light form exterior lighting. Structural Requirements Structure Requirements are based on reused materials. These can be only be determined after construction due to availability. The collection and storage of recyclables will be met with Penn States current recycling program. Three credits based on reusing existing buildings can not be gained. Structure Requirements The recycling of construction wastes should be monitored to gain credit. A credit is given for 50% of materials recycled or reused and an additional credit is given if this is raised to 75%. This can be done by volume or weight. Structure Requirements Recycled materials used in the building must be at least 5% or 10% to receive one or two points credit respectively. This also pertains to furnishings and is done by weight and cannot be determined until the project completion. Structure Requirements Regional Materials also gain a point if at least 20% is used. The products must be finished in the region (within 500 miles) to be regional. This is based on weight. This requirement should be met without a problem. Verify at completion of project. An additional credit can be gained if at least 50% of materials are used. Structure Requirements A credit is given for the use of certified wood or wood that comes from new forests and responsible tree harvesting. Most larger hardware stores carry this type of wood. This requirement should be easily met. Site/Structure Requirements There were 27 requirements mentioned in these areas and the SALA Building with proper supervision should gain 20 of 27 points. Based on the ratio of needed points to possible points overall compared to the SALA Building points to possible points looked at the SALA Building would gain at least a gold and is on the border of platinum if this ratio is achieved in all areas. Most likely after all areas considered the building would be between a silver and a gold certification. Why Certify? (Certification Benefits) Third party validation of achievement Qualify for growing array of state and local government incentives Contribute to growing knowledge base LEED certification plaque to mount on building Official certificate Receive marketing exposure through USGBC Web site, case studies, media announcements Economic Feasability Cost Analysis First Costs Life Cycle Costs Premiums Declining Costs Comparisons Energy Conservation High Priority Purchasing Green Power Peak Power Consumption Financial Incentives Future Metering Reduces Emissions Water Conservation Four Categories Potable Water Usage Gray water capture for irrigation On-site storm water capture Recycled/reclaimed water use Outdoor Reductions Indoor Reductions Cost Reductions Through Methods Productivity & Health Determination of Savings Indoor Air Quality Sick Building Syndrome Prevention Productivity = $$ Commisioning Definition Metering Underfloor Air "Cool Roofs" Summary GREEN IN THE FUTURE Conduct Peer-Reviewed Studies Study the Economic Aspects of Sustainability Unify Research and Development Create Guidelines for Implementation Measure Impact of Green on Health Use Life-Cycle Assessment for Products Continue to Upgrade LEED GREEN IN THE FUTURE Growth May be Blocked by Lack of Research Funding Must Find Common Ground in the Larger Issues of Sustainability Time Needed to Understand and Incorporate Issues Look at Green with Regional, National, and International Perspectives Green Structural Materials Structural Materials There is an on-going debate over which structural building material is the "greenest" Three main competitors: Concrete Steel Wood Reinforced Concrete Concrete's Positive Aspects Raw materials are abundant and locally available. The extraction of raw materials is less environmentally damaging than they are for steel and wood. Concrete has low embodied energy reinforced concrete has moderate embodied energy. Concrete's Positive Aspects Reinforced concrete is moderately recyclable Crushed concrete as aggregate Steel is separated and recycled Requires little maintenance Reduce heating and cooling demands Can reduce the materials used in the building Concrete is highly durable Concrete has high thermal mass Concrete can serve as a finish material Some Drawbacks Cement production is energy intensive U.S. cement production consumed about 0.4 quadrillion Btu of energy in 1994 Roughly 0.5 percent of the total U.S. energy consumption (AIA, 1999; Energy Information Administration, 2000-1) Some Drawbacks Cement production creates a lot of carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas. One ton of CO2 is produced per ton of cement Accounts for 2% of the human generated CO2 produced in the U.S. Cast-in-place concrete elements are generally not salvageable for use elsewhere Steel Positive Attributes of Steel Rolled shapes are currently made almost entirely from recycled scrap steel Easily deconstructed and recycled more economical to deconstruct bolted connections than welded connections Disassembly, refabrication, and reuse in new construction allows for less concrete to be used in the foundation Steel is salvageable Steel is lighter than Concrete Some Drawbacks High embodied energy relative to other structural materials Yet when comparing embodied energy relative to tensile strength of materials, steels performance improves Steel production produces high green house gas emissions About 5.9 million tones of CO2 emitted in 1994 Roughly 0.4 percent of the total U.S. carbon emissions for that year (LBL, 1999; Energy Information Administration, 2000-2) Some Drawbacks Not produced locally in many parts of the U.S. Frequently requires more fireproofing than other structural materials. Poor durability in certain environments when it is not protected. Wood Positive Attributes of Wood Wood has the least embodied energy of the major structural materials The only renewable material for the major structural materials Easily salvageable especially timbers Wood is biodegradable A good thermal insulator relative to the other major structural materials Wood is often available locally Some Drawbacks Destructive logging practices are common Can cause significant soil erosion and pollutant runoff habitat alteration and destruction harmful air emissions while intact forests consume carbon dioxide and have other environmental benefits. Poor durability in certain environments when not protected. Inadequate for mid-rise and high-rise construction Advantages of Engineered Wood Makes efficient use of materials. Smaller trees and scrap wood may be used in its production. engineered wood beams and posts are generally salvageable Some Drawbacks Higher embodied energy than sawn lumber Glues are toxic The U.S. Department of Energy recently announced that it is funding research into barkbased adhesives, which would presumably be less toxic and do not contain petroleum products. Less likely to be locally grown and produced than sawn lumber Which is Greenest ? Questions?? ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course C E 321 taught by Professor Pietrucha,martinkeller,michaelwi during the Spring '07 term at Penn State.
- Spring '07