ch03 - CHAPTER 3 SOLUTIONS 3.1 a Dew point pressure at 120F...

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3-1 CHAPTER 3 SOLUTIONS 3.1 a. Dew point pressure at 120 ° F = 48.9 ° C = 322 K f P x i i { } BP = = 1 0 y K i i i = 1 0 y P P i i s i = 1 0 P y P i i s i = 1 0 P y P y P y P i i s i s s = = + 1 1 1 1 2 2 Vapor pressure data – interpolation T , ° C P s , atm 1/ T , K -1 ln P s Pentane 36.1 1 0.003234 0 58.0 2 0.003020 0.694 48.9 1.51 0.003105 0.418 Hexane 31.6 0.2632 0.003281 -1.3348 49.6 0.5263 0.003098 -0.6419 48.9 0.5125 0.003105 -0.6684 P = + = 1 05 151 05 05125 0 765 . . . . . atm b. Bubble point temperature at 1 atm f T y i i { } BP = = 1 0 = = K x i i i 1 0 = = P P x i s i i 1 0 = + = P T x P T x s s 1 1 2 2 1 0 { } { } 0 1 }] { } { [ 5 . 0 2 1 = + = T P T P s s
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3-2 At T = 120 ° F f {120 ° F} = 0.5[1.51 + 0.5125] –1 = 0.01 0 T BP 120 ° F c. Vapor fraction at 120 ° F and 0.9 atm 0 ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( } { = + = i i i i K K z f α α = + + + = z P P P P z P P P P s s s s 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) α α = + + + = 05 1 151 0 9 1 151 0 9 1 05 1 05125 0 9 1 05125 0 9 1 0 . ( . . ) ( . . ) . ( . . ) ( . . ) α α = + + = 0 6778 1 0 6778 0 4306 1 0 4306 0 . . . . α α Rearranging: α = 0.424 x z K j j j = + 1 1 ( ) α x 1 05 1 151 0 9 1 0 424 0 388 = + = . ( . . ) . . x 2 05 1 05125 0 9 1 0 424 0 612 = + = . ( . . ) . . y j = K j x j y 1 = 0.651 y 2 = 0.349
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3-3 3.2 Thermophysical Property Data – from Reid et al., Properties of Gases and Liquids , McGraw-Hill (1987) – Appendix A – for vinyl chloride Molecular weight 62.499 Normal freezing point, T nfp 119.4 K Normal boiling point, T nbp 259.8 K Critical temperature, T c 425 K Critical pressure, P c 51.5 K Critical volume, V c 169 cc/mol Critical compressibility factor, z c 0.265 Acentric factor, ω 0.122 Ideal gas heat capacity, J/(mol-K) c p = a + bT + cT 2 + dT 3 , T in K a 5.949 b 0.2019 c -1.536 x 10 -4 d 4.733 x 10 -8 Heat of formation at 298 K, H f 35,170 J/mol Gibbs free energy of formation at 298 K, G f 51,540 J/mol Vapor pressure ln{P s /P c } = (1 – x) -1 ax + bx 1.5 + cx 3 + dx 6 where x = 1 – (T/T c ) a -6.5 b 1.21422 c -2.57867 d -2.00937 Liquid density at 259 K 0.969 g/cc From Woods, Data for Process Design and Engineering Practice , Prentice-Hall (1995) Latent heat of freezing at 25 ° C 76 kJ/kg Latent heat of vaporization at 25 ° C 333 kJ/kg Liquid heat capacity at 25 ° C 1.361 kJ/(kg-K) Toxicity and Flammability Data – from Woods (1995) National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) Ratings (Table Da-1) – scale of 0 – 4, 0 = harmless, 4 = extremely hazardous Hazard to health (toxicity) 2 Flammability hazard 3 Reactivity or Stability Hazard 2 Note that Crowl and Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications , Prentice-Hall (1990), provide a method for estimating the
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3-4 flammability limits for hydrocarbons, but the method does not apply to chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as vinyl chloride. Also note that the data above are for vinyl chloride only. Similar data are needed for ethylene, acetylene, chlorine, 1,2-dichloroethane, and HCl. Cost Data – from the Chemical Market Reporter , August 17, 1998 Ethylene 0.215 $/lb Chlorine 255 $/short ton (0.128 $/lb) Vinyl chloride 0.155 $/lb Hydrogen chloride 320 $/ton (0.16 $/lb) From the 1996 Stanford Research Institute Yearbook : Acetylene 0.60 – 0.70 $/lb MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for Ethylene – obtained using the URL – www.ilpi.com/msds/ . The MSDS displayed below was copied from the Cornell University data base. Similarly, MSDSs can be obtained for chlorine, vinyl chloride, HCl, and acetylene.
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3-5 Division of Facilities Services DOD Hazardous Material Information (ANSI Format)
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