Lab1_algae and fungi_2007

Lab1_algae and fungi_2007 - Laboratory 1 Algae and Fungi 18...

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Algae and Fungi Laboratory 1
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18 Laboratory 1: Algae and Fungi OBJECTIVES After completing this lab you will be able to: 1. Differentiate between members of green, red, and brown algae. 2. Learn the characterisitics of the three types of Fungi observed in lab. 3. Describe lichens and the organisms which comprise the organism. 4. Use chromatography to separate photosynthetic pigments. LAB PREPARATION 1. Read and study this laboratory. 2. Read Chapters 28 and 31 in Campbell (7 th Ed.) 3. Bring 2-3 fresh leaves from a plant whose pigments you wish to examine by TLC . 4. Bring your copy of A Photographic Atlas for the Biology Laboratory , 5th Edition. 5. Bring your personal protective gear (lab coat, safety goggles, safety gloves). INTRODUCTION A. Algae The term “algae” (singular, alga) refers to relatively simple, eukaryotic, aquatic photo-autotrophs. Your text divides the algae into seven groups: the Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates), Chrysophyta (golden algae), Bacillariophyta (diatoms), Euglenophyta (euglenoids), Chlorophyta (green algae), Phaeophyta (brown algae), and Rhodophyta (red algae). Following the classification scheme of your text (Campbell, 7 th edition), all of these groups except Rhodophyta hold the taxonomic status of phylum. Some taxonomists advocate including the Chlorophyta (green algae) in the Plant kingdom. (See Campbell, Figure 28.8, p. 554). Because of time and availability you will only examine specimens from the green, brown, and red algae in this laboratory. Biologists base these groups on several characteristics (refer to Table 1-1) including photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate food reserves, chloroplast structure, cell wall chemistry, type(s) of flagella, life cycle, and habitat. Red, brown, and green algae all have chlorophyll a in their chloroplasts. However, green algae also have chlorophyll b (as do all terrestrial plants), while brown algae have chlorophyll c . Accessory pigments also differ among the three groups. Like plants, green algae
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Laboratory 1: Algae and Fungi 19 possess β -carotene as an accessory pigment. Brown algae possess fucoxanthin, which gives them their characteristic brown color. Red algae have phycoerythrin, a red accessory pigment that belongs to a family of pigments called phycobilins. The body of a red, brown, or green alga is usually referred to as the thallus (plural, thalli). Often, the thallus is attached to the substrate by a holdfast. A holdfast should not be confused with the roots present in plants. A holdfast doesn't conduct water or nutrients like a root - it just “holds fast”. Many brown algae have the thallus divided into a stem-like stipe with leaf-like blades attached. Again, while the stipe may look like a stem, and the blades like leaves, the resemblance is only superficial.
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Lab1_algae and fungi_2007 - Laboratory 1 Algae and Fungi 18...

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