Lab10_vertebrates

Lab10_vertebrates - Laboratory 10 Vertebrata 152 Laboratory...

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Vertebrata Laboratory 10
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152 Laboratory 10: Vertebrates OBJECTIVES After completing this lab you should be able to: 1. Compare this vertebrate with the previously studied Phylla in this lab with regards to: body symmetry body cavity support circulation gas exchange feeding and digestion reproduction and development LAB PREPARATION In preparating for this laboratory you should do the following: 1. Review this lab. (If you are confused by the anatomical or physiological descriptions in this manual, please refer to the applicable sections in Chapters 41-49 in Campbell, 7 th Ed.) 2. Read Chapter 34 in Campbell, 7 th Ed 3. Bring personal protective gear (lab coat, goggles, gloves) to lab. INTRODUCTION Frogs are members of the Class Amphibia, Subphylum Vertebrata, in the Phylum Chordata (L. chorda, cord). There are seven extant classes in the subphylum Vertebrata: Agnatha (lamprey and hagfish), Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, and chimera), Osteichthyes (bony fishes), Amphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians), Reptilia (snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators, and tuatara), Aves (birds), and Mammalia (mammals). One of the major advantages vertebrates have over other animals is the possession of an internal skeleton (endoskeleton).Invertebrate exoskeletons, because of architectural restrictions, place a limit on the ultimate size of the animal. Exoskeletons also, in some cases, are so heavy as to restrict movement. Vertebrates, on the other hand, with their endoskeleton have nearly unrestricted development in size, e.g., whales and elephants. Furthermore, the relative lightness of the vertebrate skeleton coupled with its strength enable even the largest vertebrates great flexibility and mobility. Vertebrate skeletons are composed of two important materials, bone and cartilage. In fact,the majority of the skeleton of some fish such as sharks is made up of cartilage. Vertebrate bone is formed in one of two ways. It can either be formed directly by mesenchyme cells or it can form secondarily to replace a
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Laboratory 10: Vertebrates 153 Figure 10-1. Views of the frog skull, from top to bottom: dorsal, ventral, and lateral.
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154 Laboratory 10: Vertebrates cartilage precursor. The former type of bone is called dermal or membranous bone and is of mesodermal origin. The latter type is termed endochondral bone and may be of either mesodermal or ectodermal origin. Dermal bone is commonly found in fishes, particularly ancestral types. There it makes up a major portion of the head skeleton, as well as being the principle constituent of the primitive placoid, cosmoid, and ganoid scale types. In terrestrial classes of vertebrates the dermal skeleton is reduced. Those elements remaining in the frog are restricted to portions of the skull, jaws, and pectoral girdle. Endochondral bone of ectodermal origin is collectively called the
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course BIO 172L taught by Professor Gerald during the Spring '08 term at Hawaii.

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Lab10_vertebrates - Laboratory 10 Vertebrata 152 Laboratory...

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