Laboratory 10: Vertebrates
After completing this lab you should be able to:
1. Compare this vertebrate with the previously
studied Phylla in this lab with regards to:
feeding and digestion
reproduction and development
In preparating for this laboratory you should do the following:
1. Review this lab. (If you are confused by the anatomical or
physiological descriptions in this manual, please refer to the
applicable sections in Chapters 41-49 in Campbell, 7
2. Read Chapter 34 in Campbell, 7
3. Bring personal protective gear (lab coat, goggles, gloves) to lab.
Frogs are members of the Class Amphibia, Subphylum Vertebrata, in
the Phylum Chordata (L.
cord). There are seven extant
classes in the subphylum Vertebrata: Agnatha (lamprey and hagfish),
Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, and chimera), Osteichthyes (bony
fishes), Amphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians),
Reptilia (snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators, and tuatara), Aves
(birds), and Mammalia (mammals).
One of the major advantages vertebrates have over other animals is
the possession of an internal skeleton (endoskeleton).Invertebrate
exoskeletons, because of architectural restrictions, place a limit on
the ultimate size of the animal. Exoskeletons also, in some cases, are
so heavy as to restrict movement. Vertebrates, on the other hand,
with their endoskeleton have nearly unrestricted development in size,
e.g., whales and elephants. Furthermore, the relative lightness of the
vertebrate skeleton coupled with its strength enable even the largest
vertebrates great flexibility and mobility.
Vertebrate skeletons are composed of two important materials, bone
and cartilage. In fact,the majority of the skeleton of some fish such as
sharks is made up of cartilage.
Vertebrate bone is formed in one of two ways. It can either be formed
directly by mesenchyme cells or it can form secondarily to replace a