Ethnocentrism The assumption that one’s group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it
Ethnocentrism What does the term “barbarian” mean to you? In Greek? In Chinese?
“Barbarian”?The origins in Greek term barbarikos•Anyone who didn’t speak GreekIn Chinese, 400-500 years ago•Anyone who was not Chinese
Continuums of Ethnocentric CommunicationConcern vs. Indifference Involvement vs. AvoidanceEnjoyment vs. Intolerance
Stereotypes Attributions that cover up individual differences and ascribe certain characteristics to an entire group of people
Major Aspects of StereotypesCategorizationFundamental attribution errorPoints of variance
Categorization Put things together that are perceived to have something in common and simultaneously separate them from others that are perceived to be different
Categorization We categorize all the timeIt is a fundamental quality of conscious human thought•Books: romance, detective, science fiction …•People: African, Asian, American, European
CategorizationSociety will not exist if we don’t categorizeCommunication is impossible without categorization
Fundamental Attribution ErrorCategorize with attributionBased on some perceived similarity“Well, you shouldn’t be surprised by that kind of behavior. He is a politician/French/Christian/Muslim …
Fundamental Attribution ErrorThe moment we categorize people and attribute any behavior, belief, or feeling to that category, we have stereotyped themWe have put them in a way that focuses on a similarity (real or imagined) and provides an explanation (accurate or inaccurate) for behavior
Fundamental Attribution ErrorSimultaneously, we are for that moment masking or ignoring for all practical purposes the differences between people placed in that category
Fundamental Attribution ErrorThis form of reasoning is particularly strong when action is perceived negative or strangeE.g., If someone doesn’t donate?