THA 4 - Question 1: The synthesis of molecules such as...

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The synthesis of molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids requires ATP to form the bonds necessary to create the desired molecule. These processes are called biosynthetic/anabolic pathways. One usually thinks of cellular respiration as a catabolic pathway, but in fact the steps taken in glycolysis can produce immediately usable products (pyruvate, acetyl CoA, and carbohydrate) to make things like amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. This is possible because ATP gives energy from its bond between the two last phosphate groups. When this bond breaks, energy is released to fuel this process and other processes that require ATP to bond two molecules together. This uses ATP instead of harvesting it, as one usually thinks of cellular respiration. Active transport is t he pumping of molecules or ions through a membrane against their concentration gradient . This requires ATP because in order to pump anything against their concentration gradient, it will take energy, and in the cell, that energy comes from ATP. This transfer of energy occurs by one phosphate group detaching from ATP, making ATP into ADP. This energy from the phosphate bond becomes the bond energy for a new bond, forming a molecule. An example of active transport is the Sodium- Potassium pump. The Sodium-Potassium pump actively transports Sodium from inside the cell, outside, against its natural “desire” to go into the cell, where its concentration is lower. The pump also pumps Potassium against its “desired” direction, which is the opposite of Sodium. This pump is necessary to cellular survival because it makes sure that the cell has the correct concentration of both Sodium and Potassium. Therefore,
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 020.104 taught by Professor Don'tknow during the Fall '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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THA 4 - Question 1: The synthesis of molecules such as...

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