ES210 ethnic studies210 sum98 - Ethnic Studies Midterm Feb...

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Unformatted text preview: Ethnic Studies Midterm Feb. 17, 1998 ES 210 Beverly Singer a“ Midterm Exam flaw“. ES 210 Feb 17, 1998 Tenns/corflpjs/themes/names 1. The Geographic Southwest- The Southwest was one of the many origins that the Native Americans found appealing and enjoyed many aspects of the area. The very arid, dry desert is one thing they liked the most. The only water source came from rain, and two major rivers: The Rio Grande and The Colorado. This area still contains one of the oldest archeological evidence of the Native American existence. 2. Current health problems among Native American — Many current health issues among the Native Americans include: Alcoholism- which was forces down their throats to get them addicted to it. Diabetes- which was also induced by the settlers because all they would feed them was lard, flour, sugar, and powder milk, which lead to lack of nutrition and then to Diabetes. Lastly, cancer is a major health issue. This is from the movement of the reservations onto land that had high minerals and oil which seeped into their drinking water. 3. El Teatro Compesin — El Teatro Compesino, is a Los Angels theater company that is owned and run by Luis Valdez. 4. Tobacco— To the Indians tobacco had a whole different purpose then to the English settlers. The Indians medicine man would burn it and induce their whole body in it. Also, they believed that the smoke, which resembles their prayers, would float up to what they thought was the heavens. The Indians would also smoke the tobacco. This would bring everyone to the same mind. It was also used as a form of meditation. The English settlers, on the other hand, took 23,000 pound of the tobacco and shipped it back to London. Where eventually, everyone smoked tobacco as a recreational thing. 5. Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo— “‘Q‘iéiéenlé‘iit “iii-std Brevdht'théi‘fr‘idiaris 3m 1 ‘j' raiding into Mexico, and was an attempt to control the border problem. In this transformation, any Mexican land owner had to give up land or pay higher taxes. The land that remained in the hands of the Mexicans was taxed (depending on how much profit was made ofi‘ the land) so heavily that loans had to be taken out to pay for it. Finally, Mexicans had to give up their land and they became the workers on their own farm land. 6. Rancheroj s)- "People of reason" were intelligent, well read and well traveled. Rancheros were from the east coast and came over to California to settle on the land. Many of the aristocracy or the higher class had Indian servants. These servants were well taken care of. One ranch could have up to 36 servants. The servants were treated like one of the family. The Indians could have formal marriages, festive parties, religious services, and relations with others Indians. 7. Montezuma- In 1519 Montezuma was in charge with a total of 100,000 people under his rule. After defeating the Aztecs, Montezuma was killed by the Spanish explores. 8. Native American Culture Areas- There are eight main Native American origins. 1. Arctic-The Indians lived in sod houses and igloos, and had various language groups. 2. Northeast/Great lakes— The Indians used the tradition called "longhouse" living which is adding on to house when people got married. 3. Southeast- The Indians houses were on stilts, and the area was subtropical woodlands. 4. Southwest- Very arid and dry land with little water sources. 5. California- Temperate, subtropical, forests, and mountains where the Indians mostly lived in plank houses. 6. Great Basin— The Colombia river was were the Indians did a lot of salmon fishing. 7. Plains Indians— A teepee, and buffalo culture, the Indians often used horses that were brought by the Spanish and used them in herding. 8. Northwest coast- Whaling society and ocean side communities. 9. Material culture— A material culture is more interested in the things that have more of g 3. ,r .3, .3, . an effect of them and their society. For example, they are less interested in ”thihgs" and C 0M7 “a“ more interested in culture, spirituality, mind and body. The material objects do not have f, ’ an impact on their lives as do things that come from the soul and are practiced and felt deeply. The material culture cherished the things that most individuals took for granted. 10. Virgin de Guadeloup - This is the most important figure to Mexican/Mexican Americans. The Virgin de Guadeloupe, appeared to man to find some kind of hope in their lives. Many churches have been built in her honor and she is now worshipped by many. On December 12, is the feast day in which Mexicans/Mexican Americans all over celebrate the day the vision came to a man out in the dessert. 1 1. Trail of Tears- The Trail of Tears was when women, men and children were taken fi'om their land, d forced to march a thousand miles. A high number of Indians were - lost of the firs ' emoval. Then they were organized into smaller groups and they let them move throu the wildernbss so they could savage for food. About 4000 Cherokee died as the result of the removal. The route they traveled became known as the “Trail of Tears.” 393% C‘- i __ .:_3 373'; ’33 .. 3-,-.- c ' 355i- ' 12. First English Settlemen - The first English settlement was in 1607 on the Virginia coast. The new settlement was introduced after Spain lose and England gained all rights to go to the new world and own the land. The first settlers lived on corn, exchanged goods, and services. Eventually, the extinction arose because of intertribal conflicts between the settlers and the Indians. Thirty-eight men survived after the first year out of one hundred and twenty. In 1608, two hundred more people came (because they did not get the word in time of the conditions) the same thing happened. They ended up eating corpses, dogs, cats and rats. Eventually, they overpowered the Natives and decided that they should become their servants. i3. Indio- Indio refers to the reference by the Indians as “the children of God.” Indio was once the name for Indians, but later Christopher Columbus renamed them “Indians.” 14. Res onse to labor discrimination amon Mexican Americans in what areas of work?— At first, only the Mexican Americans listened and responded to the discrimination in the work place. The congress finally did an investigation about the discrimination. Early ideals were achieved by: organized labor strikes (1903 ), protest the wage cuts (Oxnard, CA), Mexican-Asian inter-ethnic union was also organized to press on the issues. Rioting eventually broke out in Arizona where many were sent to jail, and mines were closed. All this ends in ethnic solidarity. “Htfiggzwas excepted by the people that were seeking equality. As a result organizations community support groups that helped benefit Mexican Americans. U15? (ff/13L} ’ a" a; -_k l a} 15. “Warrior Chiefs in a New e”- Some good examples of Warrior chiefs in a new age would be, Medicine Crow. Medicine Crow fought Sioux, Cheyenne, and Flatheads. He was a very visionary person‘and would often fast. He fasted on Bighorn Mountains and saw wonderful sights. Once he saw a shinning object the next time he saw a vision of a white man. Another example is Plenty Coups. He also fasted for four days and four nights. He envisioned that all the buffalo were gone and that they were replaced with bulls and cattle. These are two good example of the warrior chiefs in the new age. 16. Oral tradition- Oral traditions were practiced heavily by the Native Americans as one of the only ways to tell their peoples about their culture and beliefs. The stories were passed down from generation to generation. First, The stories started at the origin and the stories that were told for at least 2000 years old. Kiva is defined as a ceremonial place where stories are told. And to this day stories are still told by the technique called Kiva. Feb. 16, 1998 Ethnic studies Essa uestion Letter A. Question: Identify two examples of major US federal policies or programs targeting Native Americans, how did they impact Native Americans? One major example of US federal program was in 1871 when the government was preparing to remove Native Americans from there homes. President Andrew Jackson was very persistent in the east removal. It finally happened from 1828—1830 "the trail of tears" occurred. Over 25,000 southeastern Indians were forced from their homes. This lead to a complete removal in the Oklahoma territory. Many original Cherokee Indians retreated into the Smoky Mountains until the removal was over. Otherwise, the rest of the women, men and children were forced to walk in the dreadfiil cold and scavenge for food just to get them through the night where finally, they arrived with no hope. Another major policy that directly effected the Indians was the Western an? ii—tav’kuéel J'-.r . quit-’9 in " Trade Policy Which once was opened, the culture became directly based on horses. This is the classic period of the Indian wars. Civil War broke out which brought attention to the South. Which then lead to the government going out to the land and dealing with the "Indian Problem. " This referred to the upcoming of the Indians. They did not want them to rebel. One more policy that I must add because it has such a tremendous effect on the Indian society is the General Allotment Act. Each family could only have 160 acres. This act was trying to divide the community. The government put heavy taxes on the land which made them eventually sell the land and many became land less. Cl _ _ 1 Feb. 16, 1998 Ethnic studies Essay Question Letter C. @estion: What are three issues afl‘ecting Latinas/Chicana/ Mexican American] Hispanic women today raised in the "Women of Hope" video, how do these impact women in the US/America? One issue brought up in the video "Women of Hope" that I thought not only impacted Mexican Americans but also directly impacted US women was the issue about making a life for oneself. In the clip about the women wanting to speak intelligently and to make decisions is a very important and crucialtthing that all women need to know how to do. Education is very important and especially if we want to advance in the society which is male dominated. The work force will not take a women seriously, especially when she can not speak intelligently. Another issue that I thought really affected women in general rather then Mexican vs. Americans is using language as "a weapon." With out the use of language you would never be able to speak your mind. It is very important to be able to say what you want whenever you want to. In the video "Women of Hope" one lady described how language was a weapon when she went to school, shopping or out on the town. Wherever you go whether there is a language barrier or not it makes a big difference if you speak the language that the others want to hear because a lot of people will not take you seriously if you can't communicate with them. Lastly, I found that prescribed family life opposed to men a very interesting topic that does not affect women as much these days but, at one time it was very common. The interest of getting married at a early age. Many Mexican/American woman find themselves in this cycle of getting married early and becoming a homemaker. This once was very popular but, I think that women have become more independent and want to improve their lives for themselves by not falling to the feet of the man. I think that all women have a stronger desire to get an education and become more independent. Which leads to the society taking women more seriously and respecting us more. All three of these issues brought up show how far we come and how much fin’ther we still have to go. f O l ...
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