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Think of these three amendments to the U.S. Constitution, all ratified within five years of the endof the Civil War:13th Amendment (1865).Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as apunishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist withinthe United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. ...14th Amendment (1868).Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States,and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the Statewherein they reside. ...15th Amendment (1870).Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shallnot be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color,or previous condition of servitude. ...Before the Civil War, the concept of liberty and justice for all meant little unless you were whiteand male. Going beyond the abolition of slavery, the 14th and 15th amendments were the firstextensions of citizenship and voting rights to minority groups.