Lab 14 Taxonomy and Phylogenetics

Lab 14 Taxonomy and Phylogenetics - Classification and...

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Classification and Phylogenetics - Lab 14 Modified from “Classification & Evolution” By Robert P. Gendron 14-1 Key Concepts Classification Phylogenetics Cladistics Phenetics Classical Evolutionary Systematics Purpose: review classification of organisms compare three schools of classification in biology construct and map the evolutionary relationships of Caminalcules, fictitious creatures invented by the evolutionary biologist Joseph Camin Notes: You must complete the lab exercises & assignment questions before the end of the class period. I. Systematics Systematics is the study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary history. Taxonomy is more general than systematics and can be defined as the science of identifying, naming and classifying organisms into groups. Taxonomists may or may not use evolutionary principles in developing classification schemes. Most taxonomists use a hierarchical system to classify species into increasingly broad groups based on extent of similarities in morphology and other characteristics. Linnaeus, a Swedish physician/ botanist in the 1700s, helped develop the two part, or binomial naming system that we use today to classify organisms. The first word of the name is the genus to which the species belongs. The second name is the specific epithet. The combination of genus and specific epithet gives us a complete and unique scientific name for an organism. For example, the scientific name for the domestic dog is Canis familiaris (underlined or italicized, genus name capitalized, species name lower case). The dog belongs to a larger group (taxon), the family Canidae. The classification process continues hierarchically. The next higher group is the order Carnivora, which is followed by the class Mammalia, subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata, and kingdom Animalia (Table. I). Table I. Classification of the Domestic Dog. Note: For plants, the term “Division” is sometimes used in place of “Phylum”. Whittaker, in 1969, developed a five kingdom naming system that includes the kingdoms Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia. Other classifications schemes have been proposed: a six kingdom system that divides prokaryotes into two kingdoms (Eubacteria and Archeabacteria); a three domain system that separates organisms into the superkingdoms of Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, and Eukarya; and an eight kingdom system that divides prokaryotes into two kingdoms (Eubacteria and Archeabacteria) and divides protists into three kingdoms (Archaezoa, Chromista, and Protista). These different schemes of classification also illustrate two extremes among taxonomists -- lumpers and splitters. Taxonomists who are lumpers prefer to classify things in only a few, broad groups while splitters favor naming many groups, resulting in fewer taxa within each group.
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Lab 14 Taxonomy and Phylogenetics - Classification and...

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