Ch02 6slides pp

Ch02 6slides pp - Energy Flows in Earth History and Natural...

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1 Energy Flows in Earth History and Natural Disasters Chapter 2 GEOL 171 Earthquakes and Natural Disasters Natural Disasters Natural Disasters Are the result of extreme events of high-energy natural phenomena acting on a restricted area over a short period of time. Primary energy sources 1. Impact of Extraterrestrial Bodies 2. Gravity 3. Earth’s Internal Heat 4. Sun Impact of Natural Disaster Correlated to Energy released/spent during disaster Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Extraterrestrial Bodies Energy released during impact Asteroids and comets; abundant in early Earth history, rare now Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Gravity Mass of earth pulls on objects landslides, avalanches, glaciers… Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Earth’s Internal Heat Heat flows from Earth’s interior to surface Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes Plate tectonics; formation of continents, atmosphere and oceans Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters
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2 Sun Evaporation of water into atmosphere produces weather: Hailstorms, lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes; Erosion Energy stored in vegetations released during fires Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Energy Sources of Earth Processes and Natural Disasters Origins of the Solar System-Immanuel Kant, 1755 Origins of the Solar System-Immanuel Kant, 1755 • Initially, a huge rotating spherical cloud of gas, ice, dust and solid debris • Gravitational attraction brought particles together into bigger and bigger particles • Cloud contracted, sped up and flattened into disk Origins of the Solar System-Immanuel Kant, 1755 Origins of the Solar System-Immanuel Kant, 1755 • The Sun: – Greatest matter accumulation in center of disk (H-hydrogen & He - helium) – Temperature1 million °C – H & He nuclear fusion produces solar radiation • Planets grow as masses collide and stick together Formation of Planets Formation of Planets Rings of concentrated matter formed within disk. Particles within rings continued to collide to form planets Inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) lost much gas and liquid to solar radiation, becoming rocky (terrestrial) Outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) retained gas and liquid, as gas planets Impact origin of the Moon Impact origin of the Moon Early impact of Mars-sized body with Earth Impact generated massive cloud of dust (from Earth’s crust and mantle) and gas which condensed to form Moon Lightweight gases and liquids lost to space Lesser abundance of iron (from Earth’s core) in Moon Earth History Earth History • Earth began as aggregating mass of particles and gases – Aggregation took over 30 to 100 million years – Occurred about 4.57 billion years ago
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Ch02 6slides pp - Energy Flows in Earth History and Natural...

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